1670s, "a natural, unreserved expression of sentiments or thoughts," from French naïveté, from Old French naiveté "genuineness, authenticity," literally "native disposition" (see naive). From 1725 as "native simplicity." Englished form naivety is attested from 1708.
early 15c., sincerite, "honesty, genuineness," from Old French sinceritie (early 16c., Modern French sincérité) and directly from Latin sinceritatem (nominative sinceritas) "purity, soundness, wholeness," from sincerus "whole, clean, uninjured," figuratively "sound, genuine, pure, true, candid, truthful" (see sincere).
1560s, "to prove" (a general sense now obsolete), from probate (n.) or from Latin probatus, past participle of probare "to make good; esteem, represent as good; make credible, show, demonstrate; test, inspect; judge by trial." Specific sense of "prove the genuineness of a will" is from 1792. Related: Probated; probating.
1590s, "natural, not acquired," from Latin genuinus "native, natural, innate," from root of gignere "to beget, produce" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"), perhaps influenced in form by contrasting adulterinus "spurious." [Alternative etymology is from Latin genu "knee," from a supposed ancient custom of a father acknowledging paternity of a newborn by placing it on his knee.] Meaning "really proceeding from its reputed source" is from 1660s. Related: Genuinely; genuineness.
1540s, "set of church bells," from ring (v.1). The meaning "a call on the telephone" is from 1900; to give (someone) a ring (up) "call on the telephone" was in use by 1910. Meaning "a ringing sound, the sound of a bell or other sonorous body" is from 1620s; specifically "the ringing sound made by a telephone" by 1951. The meaning "resonance of coin or glass as a test of genuineness" is from 1850, hence transferred use (ring of truth, etc.).
late 14c., endenture, indenture, "written formal contract for services (between master and apprentice, etc.), a deed with mutual covenants," from Anglo-French endenture, Old French endenteure "indentation," from endenter "to notch or dent" (see indent (v.1)).
Such contracts (especially between master craftsmen and apprentices) were written in full identical versions on a sheet of parchment, which was then cut apart in a zigzag, or "notched" line. Each party took one, and the genuineness of a document of indenture could be proved by laying it beside its counterpart.
[sound a bell; emit a resonant sound] Old English hringan "cause (a bell) to sound;" also "announce or celebrate by the ringing of bells," from Proto-Germanic *khrengan (source also of Old Norse hringja, Swedish ringa, Middle Dutch ringen), probably of imitative origin. Related: Rang; rung.
Originally a weak verb, the strong inflection began in early Middle English by influence of sing, etc. The intransitive sense of "give a certain resonant sound when struck" is by c. 1200. Of places, "resound, re-echo," c. 1300. Of the ears or head, "have a continued buzz or hum in reaction to exposure to noise," by late 14c. In reference to a telephone, intransitive, by 1924; as "to call (someone) on a telephone by 1880, with up (adv.). The verb was much used in phrases of 20c. telephoning, such as ring off "hang up," ring back "return a call," ring in "report by telephone."
To ring down (or up) a theatrical curtain, "direct it to be let down" (or up) is by 1772, from the custom of signaling for it by ringing a bell; hence, in a general sense "bring to a conclusion." To ring up a purchase on a cash register is by 1937, from the bell that sounds in the machine. The specialized sense, especially in reference to coins, "give a resonant sound when struck as an indication of genuineness or purity," is by c. 1600, with transferred use (as in ring hollow) by 1610s. For ring a bell "awaken a memory," see bell (n.).