Etymology
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frock (n.)

mid-14c., from Old French froc "a monk's habit; clothing, dress" (12c.), which is of unknown origin; perhaps from Frankish *hrok or some other Germanic source (compare Old High German hroc "mantle, coat;" Old Norse rokkr, Old English rocc, Old Frisian rokk, German Rock "a coat, over-garment"). Another theory traces it to an alteration of Medieval Latin floccus, from Latin floccus "tuft of wool," a word of unknown origin. Meaning "outer garment for women or children" is from 1530s. Frock-coat attested by 1819.

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defrock (v.)

1580s, "deprive of priestly garb," from French défroquer (15c.), from de- (see de-) + froque "frock" (see frock). Related: Defrocked. A Modern English verb frock "supply with a frock" is attested only from 1828 and probably is a back-formation from this.

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jams (n.)

1966, abstracted from pajamas (q.v.). Much earlier English picked up jam "a kind of frock for children" (1793) from Hindi jamah.

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soutane (n.)

"long, buttoned gown or frock with sleeves, outer garment of Roman Catholic ecclesiastics," 1838, from French soutane, from Old French sotane "undershirt," from Medieval Latin subtana "an under-cassock," from Latin subtus "beneath, under, below" (from PIE root *upo "under").

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jerkin (n.)

"short, close-fitting men's jacket" popular 16c.-17c., 1510s, of uncertain origin, perhaps related to Dutch jurk "a frock," but this is a modern word, itself of unknown origin, and the initial consonant presents difficulties (Dutch -j- typically becomes English -y-).

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chiton (n.)

mollusc genus, 1816, from Latinized form of Greek khiton "frock (worn by both sexes), tunic, mail coat" (see chitin). Used in English in literal sense of "ancient Greek tunic" from 1850. The molluscs also are known as coat-of-mail shells for their mail-like covering.

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chitin (n.)

"organic substance forming the wing cases of beetles and other insects," 1836, from French chitine, from Latinized form of Greek khiton "frock, tunic, garment without sleeves worn directly on the body;" in reference to soldiers, "coat of mail," used metaphorically for "any coat or covering." "Probably an Oriental word" [Liddell & Scott]; Klein compares Hebrew (Semitic) kuttoneth "coat," Aramaic kittana, Arabic kattan "linen;" Beekes compares Phoenician ktn "linen garment." Related: Chitinous.

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hackle (n.)

Old English hacele "coat, cloak, vestment, mantle" (cognate with Old High German hachul, Gothic hakuls "cloak;" Old Norse hekla "hooded frock"), of uncertain origin. The same word with a sense of "bird plumage" is first recorded early 15c., though this might be from unrelated Middle English hackle "flax comb" (see heckle (n.)) on supposed resemblance of comb to ruffled feathers, or from an unrecorded continental Germanic word. Metaphoric extension found in phrases such as raise (one's) hackles (as a cock does when angry) is by 1881.

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blouse (n.)

"light, loose upper garment of linen or cotton," 1828 (from 1822 as a French word in English), from French blouse, "workman's or peasant's smock" (1788), which is of unknown origin. Perhaps it is akin to Provençal (lano) blouso "short (wool)" [Gamillscheg]. Another suggestion [Klein] is that it is from Medieval Latin pelusia, from Pelusium, a city in Upper Egypt, supposedly a clothing manufacturing center in the Middle Ages.

At first a garment worn by French working-men as a protection from dust, etc., later adopted fashionably for women and children, not without objection:

In Paris, a very slovenly, loose, drawn frock, with most capacious sleeves, had been introduced called a blouse. Some of our priestesses of the toilet seemed emulous of copying this deshabille, with some slight alterations, but we never wish to see it on the symmetrical form of a British lady. ["Summary of Fashion for 1822," in Museum of Foreign Literature and Science, Jan.-June 1823]
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coat (n.)

early 14c., "principal outer garment, tunic, kirtle," typically made of cloth and usually with sleeves, worn alone or under a mantle, from Old French cote "coat, robe, tunic, overgarment," from Frankish *kotta "coarse cloth" or some other Germanic source (compare Old Saxon kot "woolen mantle," Old High German chozza "cloak of coarse wool," German Kotze "a coarse coat"); the ultimate origin is unknown.  Spanish, Portuguese cota, Italian cotta are Germanic loan-words.

Coats of modern form, fitted to the body and having loose skirts, first appeared in the reign of Charles II of England. Since the beginning of the eighteenth century the coat has been of two general fashions: a broad-skirted coat, now reduced to the form of the frock-coat ..., and a coat with the skirts cut away at the sides (the modern dress coat), worn now only as a part of what is called evening dress. [Century Dictionary, 1897]

As "garment worn suspended from the waist by women and children" from late 14c. (the sense in petticoat). Transferred late 14c. to "the natural external covering of an animal." Extended 1660s to "a thin layer of any substance covering any surface." Coat-hanger "clothes-hanger designed to facilitate the hanging of a coat" is from 1872. Coat-card (1560s) was any playing card which has a figure on it (compare face-card). It later was corrupted to court-card(1640s).

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