to measure wind velocity, developed 1806 by Francis Beaufort, Irish-born surveyor and hydrologist.
in reference to the logarithmic scale for expressing magnitude of earthquakes, 1938, named for its deviser, U.S. seismologist Charles Francis Richter (1900-1985). Figurative use by 1967.
"study of punishment for crime and crime prevention," 1838, coined apparently by Francis Lieber, corresponding member of the Philadephia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, from pen- as in penitentiary (ultimately from Latin poena "penalty, punishment;" see penal) + -ology "study of." Related: Penologist; penological.