Etymology
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crescent (n.)

late 14c., cressaunt, "crescent-shaped ornament," from Anglo-French cressaunt, from Old French creissant, croisant "crescent of the moon" (12c., Modern French croissant), from Latin crescentum (nominative crescens), present participle of crescere "come forth, spring up, grow, thrive, swell, increase in numbers or strength," from PIE root *ker- (2) "to grow."

Applied in Latin to the waxing moon, luna crescens, but subsequently in Latin mistaken to refer to the shape, not the stage. The original Latin sense is preserved in crescendo.

Meaning "moon's shape in its first or last quarter" is from mid-15c. in English. Meaning "small roll of bread made in the form of a crescent" is from 1886. Adjectival sense of "shaped like the crescent moon" is from c. 1600 (earlier it meant "increasing, growing," 1570s).

A badge or emblem of the Turkish sultans (probably chosen for its suggestion of "increase"); figurative sense of "Muslim political power" is from 1580s, but modern writers often falsely associate it with the Saracens of the Crusades or the Moors of Spain. Horns of the waxing moon are on the viewer's left side; those of the waning moon are on his right.

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fertile (adj.)

mid-15c., fertil, "bearing or producing abundantly," from Old French fertil (15c.) and directly from Latin fertilis "bearing in abundance, fruitful, productive," from ferre "to bear" (from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry," also "to bear children"). Fertile Crescent (1914) was coined by U.S. archaeologist James H. Breasted (1865-1935) of University of Chicago in "Outlines of European History," Part I.

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croissant (n.)

"buttery, flaky puff-pastry roll named for its crescent shape," 1899, see crescent.

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lune (n.)

"figure formed by two arcs of circles; anything in the shape of a crescent or half-moon," 1704, from Latin luna "moon; crescent-shaped badge" (see luna).

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fertilize (v.)

1640s, "make fertile;" see fertile + -ize. Its biological sense of "unite with an egg cell" is first recorded 1859. Related: Fertilized; fertilizing.

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meniscus (n.)

"a crescent or crescent-shaped body," 1690s in reference to lenses convex on one side, concave on the other, and thicker in the middle; c. 1812 in reference to liquid surfaces, Modern Latin meniscus, from Greek meniskos "lunar crescent," diminutive of mene "moon" (see moon (n.)). Related: Meniscoid; mensicoidal; mensical; mensicate.

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lunate (adj.)

"crescent-shaped," 1777, from Latin lunatus "half-moon shaped," from luna "moon" (see luna).

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lunar (adj.)

early 15c., "crescent-shaped;" 1620s, "pertaining to the moon," from Old French lunaire (15c.), from Latin lunaris "of the moon," from luna "moon" (see luna).

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Goa 

former Portuguese colony in India, from local goe mat "fertile land." Related: Goanese.

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Carmel 

mountain in northern Israel, from Latin Carmel, from Greek Karmel, from Hebrew karmel "garden, fertile field."

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