1640s, as a theological term (in reference to "covenants" between God and man), from French fédéral, an adjective formed from Latin foedus (genitive foederis) "covenant, league, treaty, alliance" (from PIE *bhoid-es-, suffixed form of root *bheidh- "to trust, confide, persuade").
Secular meaning "pertaining to a covenant or treaty" (1650s) led to political sense of "formed by agreement among independent states" (1707), from use of the word in federal union "union based on a treaty" (popularized during formation of U.S.A. 1776-1787) and like phrases. Also from this period in U.S. history comes the sense "favoring the central government" (1788) and the especial use of the word (as opposed to confederate) to mean a state in which the federal authority is independent of the component parts within its legitimate sphere of action. Used from 1861 in reference to the Northern forces in the American Civil War.
Commercial sense of "security against loss or death in exchange for payment" is from 1650s. Assurance was the older word for this specific sense (late 16c.). Compare insure.
1620s, "place in the hands of another as a pledge for a contract," from Latin depositus, past participle of deponere "lay aside, put down, deposit," also used of births and bets, from de "away" (see de-) + ponere "to put, place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)). From 1650s as "lay away for safe-keeping;" from 1749 as "lay down, place, put." Related: Deposited; depositing.
mid-15c., corporacioun, "persons united in a body for some purpose," from such use in Anglo-Latin, from Late Latin corporationem (nominative corporatio) "assumption of a body" (used of the incarnation of Christ), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin corporare "embody, make or fashion into a body," from corpus (genitive corporis) "body, dead body, animal body," also "a whole composed of united parts, a structure, system,community, corporation, political body, a guild" (from PIE root *kwrep- "body, form, appearance").
Meaning "legally authorized entity, artificial person created by law from a group or succession of persons" (such as municipal governments and modern business companies) is from 1610s.
1620s, "state of being placed in safe-keeping," from Latin depositum, from deponere (see deposit (v.)). From 1660s as "that which is laid or thrown down." Geological sense is from 1781; financial sense "money lodged in a bank for safety or convenience" is from 1737. Middle English had depost "thing entrusted for safe-keeping" (late 14c.).