Etymology
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clinch (n.)

1620s, "method of fastening ropes," nautical, from clinch (v.). Also compare clench (n.). Meaning "a fastening by bending a driven nail" is from 1650s. In pugilism, "grappling at close quarters," from 1875.

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latch (n.)
"device for catching and retaining," especially "a fastening for a door," late 13c., probably from latch (v.).
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hasp (n.)
Old English hæpse "fastening, clip," with later Old English metathesis of -p- and -s-. Related to Old Norse hespa "hasp, fastening," Middle Dutch, German haspe "clamp, hinge, hook," but all are of uncertain origin. The meaning "a quantity of yarn" is from c. 1400 but perhaps not the same word.
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grapple (n.)
"iron hook for fastening one thing to another," late 13c., from Old French grapil "hook" (see grapnel).
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frog (n.2)

type of fastening for clothing, 1719, originally a belt loop for carrying a weapon, of unknown origin; perhaps from Portuguese froco, from Latin floccus "tuft of wool," a word of unknown etymology.

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locket (n.)
mid-14c., "iron cross-bar of a window," from Old French loquet "door-handle, bolt, latch, fastening" (14c.), diminutive of loc "lock, latch," from Frankish or some other Germanic source (compare Old Norse lok "fastening, lock;" see lock (n.1)). Meaning "little ornamental case with hinged cover" (containing a lock of hair, miniature portrait, etc.) first recorded 1670s. Italian lucchetto also is from Germanic.
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lock (n.1)

"means of fastening," Old English loc "bolt, appliance for fastening a door, lid, etc.; barrier, enclosure; bargain, agreement, settlement, conclusion," from Proto-Germanic *lukana-, a verbal root meaning "to close" (source also of Old Frisian lok "enclosure, prison, concealed place," Old Norse lok "fastening, lock," Gothic usluks "opening," Old High German loh "dungeon," German Loch "opening, hole," Dutch luik "shutter, trapdoor").

Ordinary mechanical locks work by means of an internal bolt or bar which slides and catches in an opening made to receive it. "The great diversity of meaning in the Teut. words seems to indicate two or more independent but formally identical substantival formations from the root" [OED]. The Old English sense "barrier, enclosure" led to the specific meaning "barrier on a stream or canal" (c. 1300), and the more specific sense "gate and sluice system on a water channel used as a means of raising and lowering boats" (1570s).

From 1540s as "a fastening together," hence "a grappling in wrestling" (c. 1600). In firearms, the part of the mechanism which explodes the charge (1540s, probably so called for its resemblance to a door-latching device), hence figurative phrase lock, stock, and barrel (which add up to the whole firearm) "the whole of something" (1842). Phrase under lock and key attested from early 14c.

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desmo- 

before vowels desm-, word-forming element used in scientific compounds and meaning "band, bond, ligament," from Greek desmos "bond, fastening, chain," related to dein "to bind," from PIE root *dē- "to bind."  

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turnbuckle (n.)
also turn-buckle, 1703, "catch or fastening for windows and shutters," from turn (v.) + buckle (n.). Meaning "coupling with internal screw threads for connecting metal rods" is attested from 1877.
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clothes-pin (n.)

also clothespin, "forked piece of wood or small spring-clip for fastening clothes to a clothes-line," by 1834, American English, from clothes + pin (n.). Clothes-peg in the same sense attested from 1812.

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