Etymology
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extraction (n.)

early 15c., "process of withdrawing or obtaining" (something, from something else), from Old French estraction "extraction, origin" (12c.) or directly from Medieval Latin extractionem (nominative extractio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin extrahere "to draw out" (see extract (v.)). Meaning "that which is extracted" is from 1590s. Meaning "descent, lineage" is from late 15c.

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readout (n.)

also read-out, 1946 in the computer sense, "extraction or transfer of data from a storage device," from the verbal phrase; see read (v.) + out (adv.).

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lineage (n.)

late 17c., from Middle English linage "line of descent; an ancestor" (c. 1300), from Old French lignage "descent, extraction, race" (11c.), from ligne "line," from Latin linea "line of descent," literally "string, line, thread" (see line (n.)). The word altered in spelling and pronunciation in early Modern English, apparently by some combined influence of line (n.) and lineal.

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beet (n.)

plant growing wild in northern Europe, cultivated for use of its succulent root as food and for sugar extraction, Old English bete "beet, beetroot," from Latin beta, which is said to be of Celtic origin. Common in Old English, then lost till c. 1400. Still usually spoken of in plural in U.S. A general West Germanic borrowing, cognates: Old Frisian bete, Middle Dutch bete, Old High German bieza, German Beete.

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Bulgaria (n.)

nation in southeastern Europe, Medieval Latin, from Bulgari "Bulgarians," traditionally explained as "the men from the Bolg," the River Volga, upon whose banks they lived until 6c. But evidence is wanting, and the people's name for themselves in Old Bulgarian was Blugarinu, according to OED and Century Dictionary, which suggests a different origin. In other sources [such as Room], the name is said to be ultimately from Turkic bulga "mixed," in reference to the nature of this people of Turko-Finnish extraction but Slavic language.

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descent (n.)

c. 1300, "genealogical extraction from an original or progenitor," from Old French descente "descent, descendance, lineage," formed from descendre "to come down" (see descend) on analogy of French nouns such as attente from attendre "to expect," vente "sale" from vendre "to sell," pente "slope" from pendre "to hang" (the etymological English word from Latin would be *descence).

Meanings "action of descending" (on); "act of passing from a higher to a lower place" in any way are from late 14c.; that of "a downward slope" is from 1590s. From c. 1600 as "a sudden invasion or attack." Biological sense "evolution" is from 1859 in Darwin, though there are uses which suggest essentially the same thing going back to 1630s.

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air (n.2)

1590s, "manner, appearance" (as in an air of mystery); 1650s, "assumed manner, affected appearance" (especially in phrase put on airs, 1781), from French air "look, appearance, mien, bearing, tone" (Old French aire "reality, essence, nature, descent, extraction" (12c.); compare debonair), which is perhaps from Latin ager "place, field, productive land" (from PIE root *agro- "field") on the notion of "place of origin."

But some French sources connect this Old French word with the source of air (n.1), and it also is possible these senses in English developed from or were influenced by air (n.1); compare sense development of atmosphere and Latin spiritus "breath, breeze," also "high spirit, pride," and the extended senses of anima.

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quintessence (n.)

early 15c., quint-essence, in ancient philosophy and medieval alchemy, "a pure essence latent in all things, and the substance of which the heavenly bodies are composed," literally "fifth essence," from Old French quinte essence (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin quinta essentia, from Latin quinta, fem. of quintus "fifth" (from PIE root *penkwe- "five") + essentia "being, essence," abstract noun formed (to translate Greek ousia "being, essence") from essent-, present-participle stem of esse "to be" (from PIE root *es- "to be").

The Latin term is a loan-translation of Greek pempte ousia, the "ether" that was added by Aristotle (perhaps following the Pythagoreans) to the four known elements (water, earth, fire, air) and said to permeate all things. It was naturally bright, incorruptible, and endowed with circular motion. Its extraction was one of the chief goals of alchemy.

The transferred or figurative sense of "purest essence" (of a situation, character, etc.), "an extract from anything containing in a small quantity its virtues or most essential part" is by 1560s.

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