late 15c., "settled arrangement," also "income, property," from establish + -ment. Meaning "established church" is from 1731; Sense of "place of business" is from 1832. Meaning "social matrix of ruling people and institutions" is attested occasionally from 1923, consistently from 1955; Emerson also seems to have used it once in more or less that sense.
"adherent of the principle of an established church," 1839, from establishment + -arian. Related: Establishmentarianism (1846).
"opposition to disestablishment of the Church of England," 1838, said by Weekley to be first recorded in Gladstone's "Church and State." The establishment is "the ecclesiastical system established by law" (1731), specifically "the Church of England" (1731). Hence establishmentarianism "the principle of a state church" (1846) and disestablishment "act of withdrawing (a church) from a privileged relation to the state" (1747; see disestablish), which are married in this word. Rarely used at all now except in examples of the longest words, among which it has been counted at least since 1901.
1808, "establishment where milk is made into butter and cheese," from French crémerie, from crème (see cream (n.)).
1719, "worker in a manufacturing establishment," agent noun from manufacture (v.). Meaning "one who employs workers in manufacturing" is from 1752.
in chemistry, "the establishment of a standard strength or degree of concentration of a solution," 1864, noun of action from titrate (v.).