Etymology
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encompass (v.)

"form a circle about, encircle," 1550s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + compass (n.). Related: Encompassed; encompasses; encompassing.

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circumscribe (v.)

late 14c., "to encompass; confine, restrain, mark out bounds or limits for," from Latin circumscribere "to make a circle around, encircle, draw a line around; limit, restrain, confine, set the boundaries of," from circum "around, round about" (see circum-) + scribere "to write" (from PIE root *skribh- "to cut"). Related: Circumscribed; circumscribing.

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environ (v.)

late 14c. (implied in environing), "to surround, encircle, encompass," from Old French environer "to surround, enclose, encircle," from environ "round about," from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + viron "a circle, circuit," also used as an adverb, from virer "to turn" (see veer). Related: Environed.

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circle (v.)

late 14c., cerclen, "to shape like a globe," also "to encompass or surround with a circle," from circle (n.). From c. 1400 as "to set in a circular pattern;" mid-15c. as "to move round in a circle." Related: Circled; circling. To circle the wagons, figuratively, "assume an alert defensive stance" is from 1969, from old Western movies.

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woebegone (adj.)

c. 1300, in expressions such as me is wo bigone "woe has beset me," from woe + begon, past participle of Middle English bego "to beset, surround, overwhelm," from Old English began "go over, traverse; inhabit, occupy; encompass, surround" (see be- + go (v.)). The verb is now obsolete, and its only survival is the fossilized past participle in this word.

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quay (n.)

"landing place, place where vessels are loaded and unloaded, a wharf," 1690s, a spelling variant of Middle English key, keye, caye "wharf" (c. 1300; mid-13c. in place names), from Old North French cai (Old French chai, 12c., Modern French quai) "sand bank," from Gaulish caium (5c.), from Old Celtic *kagio- "to encompass, enclose" (source also of Welsh cae "fence, hedge," Cornish ke "hedge"), from PIE root *kagh- "to catch, seize; wickerwork, fence" (see hedge (n.)). Spelling altered in English by influence of French quai.

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Hindu (n.)

1660s, from Persian Hindu (adjective and noun) "Indian," from Hind "India," from Sanskrit sindhu "river," meaning here the Indus; hence "region of the Indus," the sense then gradually was extended by invading peoples to encompass all northern India. "Properly, one of the native race in India descended from the Aryan conquerors. ... More loosely, the name includes also the non-Aryan inhabitants of India" [Century Dictionary, 1902]. As an adjective from 1690s. The Hindu Kush mountain range is said to mean literally "Indian killer," and was said to have been the name given by the Persians to a pass where their Indian slaves had perished in winter, but this likely is folk etymology.

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belie (v.)

Middle English bilien, "tell a lie about, accuse falsely, slander," from Old English beleogan "to deceive by lies," from be- + lie (v.1) "to lie, tell lies." The  sense of "to contradict as a lie, give the lie to, show to be false" is attested by 1640s.

The other verb lie once also had an identical variant form, from Old English belicgan, which meant "to encompass, beleaguer," and in Middle English (bilien) was a euphemism for "to have sex with" (i.e. "to lie with carnally").

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circumstance (n.)

c. 1200, "a fact related to another fact and modifying it without affecting its essential nature" (originally in reference to sins), from Old French circonstance "circumstance, situation," also literally, "outskirts" (13c., Modern French circonstance), from Latin circumstantia "surrounding condition," neuter plural of circumstans (genitive circumstantis), present participle of circumstare "stand around, surround, encompass, occupy, take possession of" from circum "around" (see circum-) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." The Latin word is a loan-translation of Greek peristasis.

Meaning "a person's surroundings, environment" is from mid-14c. Meaning "a particular detail, matter of small consequence" is from c. 1300; sense of "that which is non-essential" is from 1590s. Obsolete sense of "formality about an important event, ceremonious accompaniment" (late 14c.) lingers in Shakespeare's phrase pomp and circumstance ("Othello" III, iii), taken by Edward Elgar as the title of his military march (1901), which is a staple of U.S. graduations.

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thread (n.)

Old English þræd "fine cord, especially when twisted" (related to þrawan "to twist"), from Proto-Germanic *thredu- "twisted yarn" (source also of Old Saxon thrad, Old Frisian thred, Middle Dutch draet, Dutch draad, Old High German drat, German Draht, Old Norse þraðr), literally "twisted," from suffixed form of PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn." Meaning "spiral ridge of a screw" is from 1670s. Threads, slang for "clothes" is 1926, American English.

The silk line, as spun by the worm, is about the 5000th part of an inch thick; but a spider's line is perhaps six times finer, or only the 30,000th part of an inch in diameter, insomuch, that a single pound of this attenuated substance might be sufficient to encompass our globe. [John Leslie, "Elements of Natural Philosophy," Edinburgh, 1823]
Nuts and bolts you know as little things that put big things together. Actually, our whole industrial civilization hangs by a thread—a screw thread. [Popular Science, March 1949]
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