Etymology
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embankment (n.)

"a mound, bank, dike, or earthwork raised for any purpose," 1766, from embank "to enclose with a bank" (1570s; see em- (1) + bank (n.2)) + -ment.

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mound (v.)

1510s, "to enclose with a fence;" c. 1600 as "to enclose or fortify with an embankment;" see mound (n.). From 1859 as "to heap up." Related: Mounded; mounding.

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levee (n.1)
1719, "natural or artificial embankment to prevent overflow of a river," from New Orleans French levée "a raising, a lifting; an embankment," from French levée, literally "a rising" (as of the sun), noun use of fem. past participle of lever "to raise," from Latin levare "to raise, lift up; make lighter" (from PIE root *legwh- "not heavy, having little weight"). They also were used as landing places.
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earthwork (n.)
"mounds of earth thrown up for some purpose, especially as a military fortification," 1630s, from earth + work (n.). In this sense Old English had eorðbyrig "mound, embankment;" Old English eorðweorc meant "work on the land."
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limit (n.)

c. 1400, "boundary, frontier," from Old French limite "a boundary," from Latin limitem (nominative limes) "a boundary, limit, border, embankment between fields," which is probably related to limen "threshold," and possibly from the base of limus "transverse, oblique," which is of uncertain origin. Originally of territory; general sense from early 15c. Colloquial sense of "the very extreme, the greatest degree imaginable" is from 1904.

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tribunal (n.)

early 15c., "a judgment seat," from Old French tribunal "justice seat, judgment seat" (13c.) and directly from Latin tribunal "platform for the seat of magistrates, elevation, embankment," from tribunus "official in ancient Rome, magistrate," literally "head of a tribe" (see tribune). Hence, "a court of justice or judicial assembly" (1580s).

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causeway (n.)

"road or path raised above the natural level of the ground," as a dry passage over wet places or along the top of an embankment, 1570s, from Middle English cauceweye "raised road" (mid-15c.). The first element is from Anglo-French cauce, Old North French cauciee (12c., Modern French chaussée), from Vulgar Latin *via calciata "paved way," from Latin calcis, genitive of calx (2) "limestone," or Late Latin calciare "to stamp with the heels, tread" (on notion of a road or mound across marshy ground made firm by treading down), from Latin calx (1) "heel." For second element, see way (n.).

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moat (n.)

c. 1300, mote "a mound, a hill" (a sense now obsolete); late 14c., "ditch or deep trench dug round the rampart of a castle or other fortified place," from Old French mote "mound, hillock, embankment; castle built on a hill" (12c.; Modern French motte) and directly from Medieval Latin mota "mound, fortified height," a word of unknown origin, perhaps from Gaulish mutt, mutta.

The sense shifted in Norman French from the castle mound to the ditch dug around it. For a similar evolution, compare ditch (n.) and dike. As a verb, "to surround with a moat," early 15c. Related: Moated.

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wharf (n.)

late Old English hwearf "shore, bank where ships can tie up," earlier "dam, embankment," from Proto-Germanic *hwarfaz (source also of Middle Low German werf "mole, dam, wharf," German Werft "shipyard, dockyard"); related to Old English hwearfian "to turn," perhaps in a sense implying "busy activity," from PIE root *kwerp- "to turn, revolve" (source also of Old Norse hverfa "to turn round," German werben "to enlist, solicit, court, woo," Gothic hvairban "to wander," Greek karpos "wrist," Sanskrit surpam "winnowing fan"). Wharf rat is from 1812 as "type of rat common on ships and docks;" extended sense "person who hangs around docks" is recorded from 1836.

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viaduct (n.)

1816, from Latin via "road" (see via) + -duct as in aqueduct. French viaduc is a 19c. English loan-word.

An extensive bridge consisting, strictly of a series of arches of masonry, erected for the purpose of conducting a road or a railway a valley or a district of low level, or over existing channels of communication, where an embankment would be impracticable or inexpedient; more widely, any elevated roadway which artificial constructions of timber, iron, bricks, or stonework are established. [Century Dictionary]

But the word apparently was coined by English landscape gardener Humphry Repton (1752-1818) for an architectural feature, "a form of bridge adapted to the purposes of passing over, which may unite strength with grace, or use with beauty ...."

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