Etymology
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surface (v.)

"come to the surface," 1898, from surface (n.). Earlier it meant "bring to the surface" (1885), and "to give something a (polished) surface" (1778). Related: Surfaced; surfacing.

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surface (n.)

1610s, from French surface "an outermost boundary, outside part" (16c.), from Old French sur- "above" (see sur-) + face (see face (n.)). Patterned on Latin superficies "surface, upper side, top" (see superficial). As an adjective from 1660s.

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hydrosphere (n.)

"the waters of the Earth's surface," 1870, from hydro- + sphere.

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geography (n.)

"the science of description of the earth's surface in its present condition," 1540s, from French géographie (15c.), from Latin geographia, from Greek geographia "description of the earth's surface," from geo- "earth" + -graphia "description" (see -graphy).

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lithosphere (n.)

"crust of the earth, solid part of the earth's surface," 1881, from or modeled on German Lithosphäre (1870s); see litho- "stone" + sphere.

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pluton (n.)

in geology, "large, intrusive body of igneous rock formed beneath the earth's surface," 1936, Modern Latin, from the geological sense of plutonic (q.v.).

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biosphere (n.)

"Earth's surface and lower atmosphere as the realm of living organisms," 1899, from or modeled on German Biosphäre (1875), which was coined by German geologist Eduard Suess; see bio- + sphere.

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earthlight (n.)

also earth-light, "sunlight reflected from Earth's surface and clouds," especially as illuminating the otherwise dark part of the moon, 1810, from earth (n.) + light (n.). Earthshine in same sense is from 1814.

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epicenter (n.)

1885 in seismology, "point on the earth's surface directly above the center or focus of an earthquake," from Modern Latin epicentrum (1879 in geological use); see epi- + center (n.). Related: Epicentral (1866).

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agonic (adj.)

"having no angle," 1846, from Greek agōnos, from a- "not" (see a- (3)) + -gōnos "angled," from gōnia "angle, corner" (from PIE root *genu- (1) "knee; angle"). In reference to the imaginary line on the earth's surface connecting points where the magnetic declination is zero.

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