late 15c., "a matching to one of inferior rank or condition," from Old French desparagement, from desparagier (see disparage). The older noun was simply disparage (mid-14c.), from Old French desparage. From 1590s as "injury by union or comparison with something of inferior excellence, act of depreciating, a lowering of the estimation or character" of a person or thing.
early 15c., mokkerie, "act of derision or scorn; ridicule, disparagement; a delusion, sham, pretense," from Old French mocquerie "sneering, mockery, sarcasm" (13c., Modern French moquerie), from moquer (see mock (v.)). From mid-15c. as "joking, making mischievous pleasantries." Mockage also was common 16c.-17c.
early 15c., derogacioun, "act of impairing an effect in whole or part," from Old French dérogacion (14c.) and directly from Latin derogationem (nominative derogatio) "a partial abrogation (of a law)," noun of action from past-participle stem of derogare "take away, detract from, diminish," from de "away" (see de-) + rogare "ask, question; propose," apparently a figurative use of a PIE verb meaning literally "to stretch out (the hand)," from root *reg- "move in a straight line."
From mid-15c. as "detraction, disparagement;" from 1510s as "act of impairing in merit, reputation, or honor."
mid-14c., detraccioun, "the vice of slandering;" late 14c., "act of disparaging or belittling, act of depreciating the powers or performance of another;" from Old French detraccion "detraction, disparagement, denigration" (12c.) and directly from Latin detractionem (nominative detractio) "a drawing off," from past-participle stem of detrahere "take down, pull down, disparage," from de "down" (see de-) + trahere "to pull" (see tract (n.1)).
"covered or affected with rust, rusted," Old English rustig; see rust (n.) + -y (2). Cognate with Frisian roastich, Middle Dutch roestich, Dutch roestig, Old High German rostag, German rostig.
"In the 16th and 17th centuries frequently used as a term of general disparagement" [OED]. In plant an animal names, "having the color of rust." Of bodily skills, "impaired by neglect," from c. 1500; extended to mental qualities, learning, skills, accomplishments, etc., by 1796. Related: Rustily; rustiness.
also baboo, 1782, Anglo-Indian, "native clerk (originally in Bengal) who writes English," from Hindi babu, title of respect, perhaps originally "father."
In Bengal and elsewhere, among Anglo-Indians, it is often used with a slight savour of disparagement, as characterizing a superficially cultivated, but too often effeminate, Bengali. [Yule and Burnell, "Hobson-Jobson," 1886]
In reference to "the ornate and somewhat unidiomatic English of an Indian who has learnt the language principally from books" [OED] from 1878.
1784, "one who has a taste for some art, study, or pursuit, but does not practice it," from French amateur "one who loves, lover" (16c., restored from Old French ameour), from Latin amatorem (nominative amator) "lover, friend," agent noun from amatus, past participle of amare "to love" (see Amy).
The meaning "one who cultivates and participates (in something) but does not pursue it professionally or with an eye to gain" (as opposed to professional) is from 1786; often with disparaging suggestions of "dabbler, dilettante," but not in athletics, where the disparagement shaded the professional, at least formerly. As an adjective, by 1838.
c. 1400, mediocrite, "moderation; intermediate state or amount," from Latin mediocritatem (nominative mediocritas) "a middle state, middling condition, medium," from mediocris "of middling height or state, moderate, ordinary," figuratively "mediocre, mean, inferior," literally "halfway up a mountain" (see mediocre). Neutral at first; disparaging sense "quality of being moderate or middling in ability, accomplishment, etc." began to predominate from late 16c. The meaning "person of mediocre abilities or attainments" is from 1690s. Before the tinge of disparagement crept in, another name for the Golden Mean was golden mediocrity.
c. 1300, formal term of address to a lady (a woman of rank or authority, or the mistress of a household), from Old French ma dame, literally "my lady," from Latin mea domina (see Donna, and compare madonna). It became a conventional term of address to women of any degree (but chiefly to the married and matronly); also "a woman of fashion or pretension" (often with a suggestion of disparagement) by 1590s. From 1719 as "a courtesan, a prostitute;" the meaning "female owner or manager of a brothel" is attested by 1871.
The title of Madam is sometimes given here, and generally in Charleston (S. Carolina), and in the South, to a mother whose son has married, and the daughter-in-law is then called Mrs. By this means they avoid the inelegant phraseology of old Mrs. A., or the Scotch, Mrs. A senior. [Sir Charles Lyell, "A Second Visit to the United States of North America," 1849]
1640s, "an unprincipled popular orator or leader; one who seeks to obtain political power by pandering to the prejudices, wishes, ignorance, and passions of the people or a part of them," ultimately from Greek dēmagōgos "popular leader," also "leader of the mob," from dēmos "people, common people" (originally "district," from PIE *da-mo- "division," from root *da- "to divide") + agōgos "leader," from agein "to lead" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").
In a historical sense from 1650s, "a leader of the masses in an ancient city or state, one who sways the people by oratory or persuasion." Often a term of disparagement since the time of its first use (in Athens, 5c. B.C.E.). Form perhaps influenced by French démagogue (mid-14c.).
Indeed, since the term demagogos explicitly denotes someone who leads or shepherds the demos, the eventual use of this word as the primary epithet for a political panderer represents a virtual reversal of its original meaning. The word demagogos in fact implies that the people need someone to lead them and that political power, at least in part, is exercised appropriately through this leadership. [Loren J. Samons II, "What's Wrong With Democracy," University of California Press, 2004]
A Latin word in a similar sense was plebicola "one who courts (literally 'cultivates') the common people," from plebs "the populace, the common people" + colere "to cultivate."