late 14c., directen, "to write or address (a letter, words)" to someone, also "to point or make known a course to," from Latin directus past participle of dirigere "set straight, arrange; give a particular direction to, send in a straight line; guide" a thing, either to something or according to something, from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + regere "to direct, to guide, keep straight" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line"). Compare dress; address.
Sense of "to point or aim in a straight line toward a place or an object" is from c. 1400. Meaning "to govern, regulate as to behavior, prescribe the course or actions of" is from early 15c. Sense of "to order, ordain" is from 1650s. Sense of "to write the destination on the outside of a letter" had emerged by 17c. In reference to plays, films, etc., "to supervise and control the making of," it is attested from 1913. Related: Directed; directing.
c. 1400, "straight, undeviating, not crooked," from Old French direct (13c.) and directly from Latin directus "straight," adjectival use of past participle of dirigere "to set straight," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + regere "to direct, to guide, keep straight" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line"). Meaning "plain, expressive, not ambiguous" is from 1580s.
late 14c., "something granted; authoritative bestowal of a privilege, etc.," from Anglo-French graunt, Old French graant, collateral variant of creant "promise, assurance, vow; agreement, pact; will, wish, pleasure," from creanter "be pleasing; assure, promise, guarantee; confirm, authorize" (see grant (v.)). Earlier in English in now-obsolete sense of "allowance, permission" (c. 1200). Especially "money formally granted by an authority" from c. 1800. In American English, especially of land, from c. 1700.
in early use also graunt, early 13c., "to allow, permit (something); consent to (a prayer, request, etc.)," from Old French graanter, variant of creanter "assure, promise, guarantee, swear; confirm, authorize, approve (of)," from Latin credentem (nominative credens), present participle of credere "to believe, to trust" (see credo). From c. 1300 as "transfer possession of in any formal way." Meaning "admit to be true, acknowledge" in English is from c. 1300; hence to take (something) for granted "regard as not requiring proof" (1610s). The irregular change of -c- to -g- in Old French is perhaps from influence of garantir. Related: Granted; granting.
[place of instruction] Middle English scole, from Old English scol, "institution for instruction," from Latin schola "meeting place for teachers and students, place of instruction;" also "learned conversation, debate; lecture; disciples of a teacher, body of followers, sect," also in the older Greek sense of "intermission of work, leisure for learning."
This is from Greek skholē "spare time, leisure, rest, ease; idleness; that in which leisure is employed; learned discussion;" also "a place for lectures, school;" originally "a holding back, a keeping clear," from skhein "to get" (from PIE root *segh- "to hold") + -olē by analogy with bolē "a throw," stolē "outfit," etc.
The basic sense of the Greek word is "leisure," which passed to "otiose discussion" (in Athens or Rome, the favorite or proper use of free time), then it came to be used for the place for such discussion.
The Latin word was widely borrowed (in addition to Old French escole, French école, Spanish escuela, Italian scuola; Old High German scuola, German Schule, Swedish skola, Gaelic sgiol, Welsh ysgol, Russian shkola).
The meaning "students attending a school" in English is attested from c. 1300; the sense of "school building" is by 1590s. Sense of "people united by a general similarity of principles and methods" is from 1610s; hence school of thought (by 1848). As an adjective by mid-18c., "pertaining to or relating to a school or to education."
School of hard knocks "rough experience in life" is by 1870; to tell tales out of school "betray damaging secrets" is from 1540s. School-bus is from 1908. School days is from 1590s. School board "local committee of education" is by 1836; school district "division of a town or city for the management of schools" is by 1809.
"educate, instruct;" also "reprimand, discipline, reprove," mid-15c., scolen, from school (n.1). Especially "to train or discipline thoroughly and strictly," as in a school (1570s).
[large number of fish] late 14c., scole, from Middle Dutch schole (Dutch school) "group of fish or other animals" (porpoises, whales), which is cognate with Old English scolu "band, troop, crowd of fish," both from West Germanic *skulo- (source also of Old Saxon scola "troop, multitude," West Frisian skoal), perhaps with a literal sense of "division," and from PIE root *skel- (1) "to cut." Compare shoal (n.2)), the assibilated form of the same word. For possible sense development, compare section (n.) from Latin secare "to cut."
"collect or swim in schools," as fish, 1590s, from school (n.2). Related: Schooled; schooling.