Etymology
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diction (n.)

1540s, "a word," a sense now obsolete, from Late Latin dictionem (nominative dictio) "a saying, expression; a word; kind of delivery, style," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin dicere "to say, state, proclaim, make known, allege, declare positively" (source of French dire "to say"), which is related to dicare "to talk, speak, utter, make speech; pronounce, articulate," both from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly." The meaning "manner of saying," especially in reference to the choice of words, is from 1700.

Latin dicere and dicare are presumed to have been originally the same word. De Vann writes that "the verb dicāre may well have been backformed from compounds in -dicāre." The basic sense in both is "to talk, speak, declare." They seem to have divided, imperfectly, the secondary senses between them: dicere "to say, state, proclaim, make known, allege, declare positively; plead (a case);" in religion, "to dedicate, consecrate," hence, transferred from the religion sense, "give up, set apart, appropriate;" dicare "to talk, speak, utter, make speech; pronounce, articulate; to mean, intend; describe; to call, to name; appoint, set apart."

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indicate (v.)

1650s, "to point out," back-formation from indication (q.v.) or else from Latin indicatus, past participle of indicare "to point out, show," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Especially "to give suggestion of, be reason for inferring" (1706). Related: Indicated; indicating.

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indication (n.)

early 15c., "a sign, that which indicates," from Latin indicationem (nominative indicatio) "an indicating; valuation," noun of action from past participle stem of indicare "point out, show," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction).

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abdication (n.)
Origin and meaning of abdication

1550s, "a disowning," from Latin abdicationem (nominative abdicatio) "voluntary renunciation, abdication," noun of action from past-participle stem of abdicare "disown, disavow, reject," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Sense of "resignation of inherent sovereignty" is from 1680s.

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abdicate (v.)
Origin and meaning of abdicate

1540s, "to disown, disinherit (children)," from Latin abdicatus, past participle of abdicare "to disown, disavow, reject" (specifically abdicare magistratu "renounce office"), literally "proclaim as not belonging to one," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Meaning "divest oneself of office, privilege, etc., before the term expires" first recorded 1610s in English (it was in classical Latin). Related: Abdicated; abdicating.

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dedicate (v.)

early 15c. (of church buildings) "set apart and consecrate to a deity or a sacred purpose," from Latin dedicatus, past participle of dedicare "consecrate, proclaim, affirm, set apart," from de "away" (see de-) + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction).

General sense of "devote with solemnity or earnest purpose" is from 1550s. Meaning "ascribe or address (a literary or musical composition) to someone or something" is from 1540s. Related: Dedicated; dedicating.

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vindication (n.)

late 15c., "act of avenging, revenge," from Old French vindicacion "vengeance, revenge" and directly from Latin vindicationem (nominative vindicatio) "act of claiming or avenging," noun of action from past participle stem of vindicare "lay claim to, assert; claim for freedom, set free; protect, defend; avenge" (related to vindicta "revenge"), probably from vim dicare "to show authority," from vim, accusative of vis "force" (see vim) + dicare "to proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Meaning "justification by proof, defense against censure" is attested from 1640s.

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dedication (n.)

late 14c., dedicacioun, "action of consecrating to a deity or sacred use," from Old French dedicacion "consecration of a church or chapel" (14c., Modern French dédication) and directly from Latin dedicationem, noun of action from dedicare "consecrate, proclaim, affirm, set apart," from de "away" (see de-) + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Meaning "the giving of oneself to some purpose" is from c. 1600. Sense of "an inscription to a patron or friend prefixed to a literary or musical composition" is from 1590s.

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predicate (n.)

mid-15c., a term in logic, "that which is said of a subject," from Old French predicat and directly from Medieval Latin predicatum, from Latin praedicatum "that which is said of the subject," noun use of neuter past participle of praedicare "assert, proclaim, declare publicly," from prae- "forth, before" (see pre-) + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction).

The grammatical sense of "the word or words which express what is said of a subject in a proposition" is from 1630s. Related: Predicative; predicator; predicatory.

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predicament (n.)

early 15c., in philosophy, "category, class; one of Aristotle's 10 categories," from Medieval Latin predicamentum, from Late Latin praedicamentum "quality, category, something predicted, that which is asserted," from Latin praedicatus, past participle of praedicare "assert, proclaim, declare publicly," from prae- "forth, before" (see pre-) + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Praedicamentum is a loan-translation of Greek kategoria, Aristotle's word.

The meaning "unpleasant, dangerous, or trying situation" is a particular negative use of the general sense of "a state of being, condition, situation" (1580s).

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