early 15c., "incapacity;" mid-15c., "any harm or injury," from Old French détriment or directly from Latin detrimentum "a rubbing off; a loss, damage, defeat," from past-participle stem of detere "to wear away," figuratively "to weaken, impair," from de "away" (see de-) + terere "to rub, wear" (from PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn"). Meaning "that which causes harm or injury" is from c. 1500.
*terə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to rub, turn," with derivatives referring to twisting, also to boring, drilling, piercing; and to the rubbing of cereal grain to remove the husks, and thus to threshing.
It forms all or part of: atresia; attorn; attorney; attrition; contour; contrite; detour; detriment; diatribe; drill (v.) "bore a hole;" lithotripsy; return; septentrion; thrash; thread; thresh; throw; threshold; trauma; trepan; tribadism; tribology; tribulation; trite; triticale; triturate; trout; trypsin; tryptophan; turn.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit turah "wounded, hurt;" Greek teirein "to rub, rub away;" Latin terere "to rub, thresh, grind, wear away," tornus "turning lathe;" Old Church Slavonic tiro "to rub;" Lithuanian trinu, trinti "to rub," Old Irish tarathar "borer," Welsh taraw "to strike."
late 14c., "detriment, harm;" early 15c. as "a becoming less or smaller," from Anglo-French decres, from the verb (see decrease (v.)).
"unpaid debt," early 14c., from Old French arierage "detriment, prejudice" in a legal sense (Modern French arrérages), from ariere "behind" (see arrears).
"deceive, impose upon, mislead the mind or judgment of," c. 1400, from Latin deludere "to play false; to mock, deceive," from de- "down, to one's detriment" (see de-) + ludere "to play" (see ludicrous). Related: Deluded; deluding.
Mislead means to lead wrong, whether with or without design. Delude always, at least figuratively, implies intention to deceive, and that means are used for that purpose. We may be misled through ignorance and in good faith, but we are deluded by false representations. A person may delude himself. [Century Dictionary]
"mass destruction by fire of published material deemed obscene, corrupting, etc.," 1850, from book (n.) + verbal noun from burn (v.). As an adjective, it is attested from 1726 (in John Toland, who was a victim of it).
What an irreparable destruction of History, what a deplorable extinction of arts and inventions, what an unspeakable detriment to Learning, what a dishonor upon human understanding, has the cowardly proceeding of the ignorant or rather of the interested against unarm'd monuments at all times occasion'd! And yet this Book-burning and Letter-murdring humor, tho far from being commanded by Christ, has prevail'd in Christianity from the beginning .... [John Toland, "The History of the Druids," 1726]
c. 1300, "despite, contempt," from Old French prejudice "a prejudice, prejudgment; damage" (13c.) and directly from Medieval Latin prejudicium "injustice," from Latin praeiudicium "prior judgment, judicial examination before trial; damage, harm," from prae- "before" (see pre-) + iudicium "judgment," from iudex (genitive iudicis) "a judge" (see judge (n.)).
Meaning "injury, physical harm" is mid-14c., as is the legal sense of "detriment or damage caused by the violation of a legal right." Meaning "preconceived opinion" (especially but not necessarily unfavorable) is from late 14c. in English; now usually "decision formed without due examination of the facts or arguments necessary to a just and impartial decision." To terminate with extreme prejudice "kill" is by 1972, said to be CIA jargon.
1540s, "words, clauses, etc. inserted into a sentence, not grammatically connected to it but explaining or qualifying a word," from French parenthèse (15c.) or directly from Medieval Latin parenthesis "addition of a letter to a syllable in a word," from Greek parenthesis, literally "a putting in beside," from parentithenai "put in beside," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + en- "in" + tithenai "to put, to place" (from reduplicated form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").
By 1715 the sense was extended from the inserted words to the two upright curved brackets (parentheses) used by printers or writers to indicate the words inserted.
Your first figure of tollerable disorder is [Parenthesis] or by an English name the [Insertour] and is when ye will seeme for larger information or some other purpose, to peece or graffe in the middest of your tale an vnnecessary parcell of speach, which neuerthelesse may be thence without any detriment to the rest. [George Puttenham, "The Arte of English Poesie," 1589]
A wooden parenthesis; the pillory. An iron parenthesis; a prison. ["Dictionary of Buckish Slang, University Wit and Pickpocket Eloquence," London, 1811]