Etymology
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detective (n.)

"one whose occupation is to investigate matters as to which information is desired, especially concerning wrong-doers, and to obtain evidence against them," 1828, short for detective police, from detective (adj.) "fitted for or skilled in detecting" (by 1828); see detect + -ive.

His duties differ from those of the ordinary policeman in that he has no specific beat or round, and in that he is concerned with the investigation of specific cases, or the watching of particular individuals or classes of offenders, rather than with the general guardianship of the peace, and does not wear a distinguishing uniform. [Century Dictionary, 1897]
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story (n.2)

"floor of a building," c. 1400, from Anglo-Latin historia "floor of a building" (c. 1200), also "picture," from Latin historia (see history). "Perhaps so called because the front of buildings in the Middle Ages often were decorated with rows of painted windows" [Barnhart].

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story (n.1)

"connected account or narration of some happening," c. 1200, originally "narrative of important events or celebrated persons of the past," from Old French estorie, estoire "story, chronicle, history," from Late Latin storia, shortened from Latin historia "history, account, tale, story" (see history).

A story is by derivation a short history, and by development a narrative designed to interest and please. [Century Dictionary]

Meaning "recital of true events" first recorded late 14c.; sense of "narrative of fictitious events meant to entertain" is from c. 1500. Not differentiated from history until 1500s. For the sense evolution compare Gaelic seanachas "history, antiquity," also "story, tale, narration," from sean "old, ancient" + cuis "a matter, affair, circumstance."

As a euphemism for "a lie" it dates from 1690s. Meaning "newspaper article" is from 1892. Story-line first attested 1941. That's another story "that requires different treatment" is attested from 1818. Story of my life "sad truth" first recorded 1938, from typical title of an autobiography.

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story-telling (n.)

also storytelling, 1709, from story (n.1) + present participle of tell (v.). Related: Story-teller (1709).

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story-board (n.)

also storyboard, 1941, from story (n.1) + board (n.1).

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story-book (n.)

1711, from story (n.1) + book (n.). As an adjective from 1844.

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fish-story (n.)

"incredible or extravagant narration," by 1819, U.S. colloquial, from the tendency to exaggerate the size of the catch (or the one that got away). See fish (n. ) + story (n.1).

Do not tell fish stories where the people know you; but particularly, don't tell them where they know the fish. ["Mark Twain," in "More Maxims of Mark" by Merle Johnson (1927)] 
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tec (n.)

1879 in thieves' slang as short for detective (n.); 1934 as short for detective story.

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shamus (n.)

"police officer, detective," 1920, apparently first in "The Shamus," a detective story published that year by Harry J. Loose (1880-1943), a Chicago police detective and crime writer; the book was marketed as "a true tale of thiefdom and an expose of the real system in crime." The word is said to be probably from Yiddish shames, literally "sexton of a synagogue" (according to Israel Zangwill "a potent personage only next in influence to the President"), from Hebrew shamash "servant." Probably influenced by Celtic Seamus "James," as a typical name for an Irish cop.

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Pinkerton 

in reference to a semi-official detective, 1888 (Pinkerton men), from the detective agency begun in U.S. 1850 by Allan Pinkerton (1819-1884).

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