Etymology
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detachment (n.)

1660s, "action of detaching or disconnecting," from French détachement (17c.), from détacher (see detach). Meaning "that which is detached," especially "portion of a military force detailed for special service or purpose" is from 1670s. Sense of "spiritual separation from the world, aloofness from objects or circumstances" is from 1798.

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Sturmabteilung (n.)

1923, from German, literally "storm detachment;" paramilitary force of the Nazi Party, founded 1921, repressed 1934, also know by its initials, S.A.; also see Brown Shirt.

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denazify (v.)

"detachment of Nazis from their allegiance; removal of Nazis from official position," 1944, from de- + Nazi + -fy. Related: Denazified; denazifying.

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press-gang (n.)

"detachment under command of an officer empowered to press men into public service," 1690s, from press (v.2) + gang (n.).

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Brown Shirt (n.)

generic term for "Nazi, fascist," especially of the thuggish sort, 1934, originally (1922) in reference to the German Sturmabteilung ("Storm Detachment"), the Nazi party militia founded 1921; they were called Brown Shirts in English because of their uniforms.

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formalism (n.)

1840, "strict adherence to prescribed forms," from formal + -ism. Used over the years in philosophy, theology, literature, and art in various senses suggesting detachment of form from content, or spirituality, or meaning; or belief in the sufficiency of formal logic. Related: Formalist.

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cadre (n.)

"permanently organized framework of a military unit" (the officers, etc., as opposed to the rank-and-file), 1851; earlier "framework, scheme" (1830); from French cadre, literally "a frame of a picture" (16c.), so, "a detachment forming the skeleton of a regiment," from Italian quadro, from Latin quadrum "a square," which related to quattuor "four" (from PIE root *kwetwer- "four"). The communist sense of "group or cell of workers trained to promote the interests of the Party" is from 1930.

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patrol (n.)

1660s, "action of going the rounds" (of a military camp, etc.), from French patrouille "a night watch" (1530s), from patrouiller "go the rounds to watch or guard," originally "tramp through the mud," probably soldiers' slang, from Old French patouiller "paddle in water," which is probably from pate "paw, foot" (see patten). Compare paddlefoot, World War II U.S. Army slang for "infantry soldier." Meaning "those who go on a patrol" is from 1660s. Sense of "detachment of soldiers sent out to scout the countryside, the enemy, etc." is attested from 1702.

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partisan (n.)

also partizan, 1550s, "one who takes part with another, zealous supporter," especially one whose judgment is clouded by prejudiced adherence to a party, from French partisan (15c.), from dialectal upper Italian partezan (Tuscan partigiano) "member of a faction, partner," from parte "part, party," from Latin partem (nominative pars) "a part, piece, a share, a division; a party or faction; a part of the body; a fraction; a function, office" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot").

In military use, "member of a detachment of troops sent on a special mission," from 1690s. As these commonly were irregular troops, it took on the sense of "guerrilla fighter" in the Peninsular campaign of the Napoleonic wars and again in reference to resistance to Nazi occupation in the Balkans and Eastern Europe in World War II.

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surprise (n.)

also formerly surprize, late 14c., "unexpected attack or capture," from Old French surprise "a taking unawares" (13c.), from noun use of past participle of Old French sorprendre "to overtake, seize, invade" (12c.), from sur- "over" (see sur- (1)) + prendre "to take," from Latin prendere, contracted from prehendere "to grasp, seize" (from prae- "before," see pre-, + -hendere, from PIE root *ghend- "to seize, take").

Meaning "something unexpected" is recorded by 1590s, that of "feeling of astonishment caused by something unexpected" is c. 1600. Meaning "fancy dish" is attested from 1708.

A Surprize is ... a dish ... which promising little from its first appearance, when open abounds with all sorts of variety. [W. King, "Cookery," 1708]

Surprise party originally was a stealth military detachment (1826); festive sense is attested by 1857; according to Thornton's "American Glossary," originally a gathering of members of a congregation at the house of their preacher "with the ostensible purpose of contributing provisions, &c., for his support," and sometimes called a donation party. Phrase taken by surprise is attested from 1690s.

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