Etymology
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deposition (n.)

late 14c., deposicion, "dethronement, a putting down of a person from dignity, office, or authority," from Old French deposicion (12c.), from Latin depositionem (nominative depositio), noun of action from past-participle stem of deponere "to lay aside" (see deposit (v.)).

Meaning "a statement or statements made in court under oath" is from early 15c. Meaning "action of depositing" is from 1590s. Properly, deposition belongs to deposit, but deposit and depose have become inextricably confused and English deposition partakes of senses belonging to both.

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pigmentation (n.)

"coloration or discoloration by the deposition of pigment in the tissues," 1866, from pigment + noun ending -ation. Perhaps modeled on French.

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melanosis (n.)

"abnormal deposition of pigmentary matter in organs or parts of the body," by 1815, medical Latin, from Greek melanosis "a becoming black," from melanoun "to become black," from melas (genitive melanos); see melano-. Related: Melanotic.

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sedimentation (n.)

"the deposition of sediments," 1845; see sediment + -ation, ending used in forming nouns of action. The uncommon verb sediment is attested only from 1899 and could be a back-formation.

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sedimentary (adj.)

1760, "pertaining to or of the nature of dregs or sediment; precipitated by gravitation from a liquid;" see sediment + -ary. Sedimentary rock in geology is that formed by deposition of material previously suspended in water," attested by 1814.

Sedimental (adj.) "pertaining to dregs" is recorded from c. 1600 and might have lived long enough for a *sedimental journey pun but didn't.

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deponent (adj.)

mid-15c., originally in Latin grammar (of verbs passive in form but active in sense), from Latin deponentem "putting down or aside," present participle of deponere "lay aside, put down, deposit," also used of births and bets, from de "away" (see de-) + ponere "to put, place" (see position (n.)). As a noun, "a deponent verb," 1520s; as "one who makes a deposition," especially under oath, from 1540s.

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caption (n.)

late 14c., "a taking, seizure," from Old French capcion "arrest, capture, imprisonment," or directly from Latin captionem (nominative capito) "a catching, seizing, holding, taking," noun of action from past-participle stem of capere "to take" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp").

It was used from mid-17c. in the wording at the head of legal documents involving seizure, deposition, etc. ("Certificate of caption"). Thus the sense was extended to "the beginning of any document," and further to "heading of a chapter or section of an article" (1789), and, especially in U.S., "description or title below an illustration" (1919).

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prestige (n.)

1650s, "trick, illusion, imposture" (senses now obsolete), from French prestige (16c.) "deceit, imposture, illusion" (in Modern French, "illusion, magic, glamour"), from Latin praestigium "delusion, illusion" (see prestigious).

From about 1815 it was used in the sense of "an illusion as to one's personal merit or importance, a flattering illusion," hence, positively, "a reputation for excellence, importance, or authority," senses probably introduced from French, often in reference to Napoleon:

When the same question was put to those who knew him and France best, they answered, 'that a peace dictated in France would have undone him ;'—'that his throne was founded on public opinion,' and 'that if the prestige,' for so they called it, 'of his glory were to be destroyed, the state of his affairs, and the character of the French people forbade him to expect that his power would long survive it.' ["Memoirs of Bonaparte's Deposition," Quarterly Review, Oct. 1814] 
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tale (n.)

Old English talu "series, calculation," also "story, tale, statement, deposition, narrative, fable, accusation, action of telling," from Proto-Germanic *talō (source also of Dutch taal "speech, language," Danish tale "speech, talk, discourse," German Erzählung "story," Gothic talzjan "to teach"), from PIE root *del- (2) "to recount, count." The secondary Modern English sense of "number, numerical reckoning" (c. 1200) probably was the primary one in Germanic; see tell (v.), teller and Old Frisian tale, Middle Dutch tal, Old Saxon tala, Danish tal, Old High German zala, German Zahl "number."

The ground sense of the Modern English word in its main meaning, then, might have been "an account of things in their due order." Related to talk (v.) and tell (v.). Meaning "things divulged that were given secretly, gossip" is from mid-14c.; first record of talebearer "tattletale" is late 15c.

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