Etymology
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deficiency (n.)

1630s, "state of falling short, a lack or failing;" 1660s, "that in which a person or thing is deficient, inadequacy," from Late Latin deficientia, from deficient-, present-participle stem of deficere "to desert, revolt, fail," from de "down, away" (see de-) + combining form of facere "to do, make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). The older English word, now rare or obsolete, was deficience (mid-15c.).

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AIDS (n.)

1982, acronym formed from acquired immune deficiency syndrome. AIDS cocktail attested by 1997, the thing itself said to have been in use from 1995.

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fail (n.)

late 13c., "failure, deficiency" (as in without fail), from Old French faile "deficiency," from falir (see fail (v.)). The Anglo-French form of the verb, failer, also came to be used as a noun, hence failure.

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acquired (adj.)

c. 1600, "gained by effort," past-participle adjective from acquire. Of diseases, "occurring after birth, thus not dependent on heredity," 1842 (opposed to congenital); acquired immune deficiency is attested by 1980; acquired immune deficiency syndrome by 1982. Acquired taste is attested from 1734.

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oligotrophy (n.)

"deficiency of nutrition," by 1895, from oligo- "small, little" + -trophy "food, nourishment." Related: Oligotrophic.

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shortage (n.)

"deficiency, the amount by which anything is short," 1862, American English, from short + -age.

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supplement (n.)

late 14c., from Latin supplementum "that which fills up, that with which anything is made full or whole, something added to supply a deficiency," from supplere "to fill up" (see supply (v.)).

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insufficiency (n.)

1520s, from Old French insufficience and directly from Late Latin insufficientia "insufficience," abstract noun from insufficientem "insufficient" (see insufficient). Insufficience "deficiency" is from early 15c.

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anaemia (n.)

"deficiency of blood in a living body," 1824, a medical term from French (1761), from Latinized form of Greek anaimia "lack of blood," from anaimos "bloodless," from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + haima "blood" (see -emia).

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