Etymology
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damnation (n.)

c. 1300, dampnacioun, "condemnation to Hell by God," also "fact of being condemned by judicial sentence," from Old French damnation, from Latin damnationem (nominative damnatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of damnare "to doom, condemn" (see damn). As an imprecation, attested from c. 1600.

Damnation follows death in other men,
But your damn'd Poet lives and writes agen.
[Pope, letter to Henry Cromwell, 1707 or 1708]
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tarnation (n.)
1784, American English alteration of darnation (itself a euphemism for damnation), influenced by tarnal (1790), a mild profanity, clipped from phrase by the Eternal (God) (see eternal).
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condemnation (n.)

late 14c., condempnacioun, "strong censure," from Late Latin condemnationem (nominative condemnatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin condemnare, condempnare "to sentence, to blame" (see condemn). From late 14c. as "the act of condemning; damnation."

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saved (adj.)

late 14c., "delivered from damnation, destined for Heaven," past-participle adjective from save (v.). Saved by the bell is by  1902 (American English) in reference to prize fighting; 1912 in reference to the classroom; figurative use from 1915, probably at first from the fighting sense.

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ban (n.1)

c. 1300, "proclamation or edict of an overlord," from Old English (ge)bann "proclamation, summons, command" and cognate Old French ban "decree, announcement," which is from a Germanic language, from Proto-Germanic *bannaz (source also of Old Frisian bon "order, commandment; jurisdiction, penalty; eternal damnation, excommunication," Old Saxon bann "commandment, prohibition"), from *bannan "to speak publicly" (used in reference to various sorts of proclamations), "command; summon; outlaw, forbid" (see ban (v.)). Meaning "an authoritative prohibition" is from 1660s. There are noun forms in most of the Germanic languages, from the verbs. Compare banns.

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ransom (n.)

13c., raunsoun, "sum paid for the release of a prisoner or captured man," also "redemption from damnation," from Old French ranson (Modern French rançon), earlier raenson "ransom, redemption," from Latin redemptionem (nominative redemptio) "a redeeming," from redimere "to redeem, buy back," from red- "back" (see re-) + emere "to take, buy, gain, procure" (from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute"). A doublet of redemption. A faded word somewhat revived by Scott early 19c. Spelling with -m appears by late 14c., but the reason for it is unclear (compare seldom, random).

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perdition (n.)

mid-14c., "condition of damnation, spiritual ruin, state of the souls of the wicked in Hell," a special theological sense; the general sense of "utter destruction, entire ruin, great harm, death, fact of being lost or destroyed," is by late 14c.; from Old French perdicion "loss, calamity, perdition" of souls (11c.) and directly from Late Latin perditionem (nominative perditio) "ruin, destruction," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin perdere "do away with, destroy; lose, throw away, squander," from per- "through" (here perhaps with intensive or completive force, "to destruction") + dare "to give" (from PIE root *do- "to give"). The theological sense gradually extinguished the general use of the word.

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anathema (n.)

1520s, "an accursed thing," from Latin anathema "an excommunicated person; the curse of excommunication," from Ecclesiastical Greek anathema "a thing accursed," a slight variation of classical Greek anathāma, which meant merely "a thing devoted," literally "a thing set up (to the gods)," such as a votive offering in a temple, from ana "up" (see ana-) + tithenai "to put, to place," from reduplicated form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put."

By the time it reached Late Latin the meaning of the Greek word had progressed through "thing devoted to evil," to "thing accursed or damned." Later it was applied to persons and the Divine Curse. Meaning "act or formula of excommunicating and consigning to damnation by ecclesiastical authority" is from 1610s.

Anathema maranatha, taken as an intensified form, is held to be a misreading of I Corinthians xvi.22 where anathema is followed by Aramaic maran atha "Our Lord hath come" (see Maranatha).

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safe (adj.)

c. 1300, sauf, "unscathed, unhurt, uninjured; free from danger or molestation, in safety, secure; saved spiritually, redeemed, not damned;" from Old French sauf "protected, watched-over; assured of salvation," from Latin salvus "uninjured, in good health, safe," which is related to salus "good health," saluber "healthful" (all from PIE *solwos from root *sol- "whole, well-kept"). For the phonological development of safe from sauf, OED compares gage from Old North French gauge.

From late 14c. as "rescued, delivered; protected; left alive, unkilled." The meaning "not exposed to danger" (of places, later of valuables) is attested from late 14c.; in reference to actions, etc., the meaning "free from risk," is recorded by 1580s. The sense of "sure, reliable, not a danger" is from c. 1600. The sense of "conservative, cautious" is from 1823. It has been paired alliteratively with sound (adj.) from c. 1300. In Middle English it also meant "in good health," also "delivered from sin or damnation." Related: Safeness.

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predestination (n.)

mid-14c., predestinacioun, "the action of God in foreordaining certain of mankind through grace to salvation or eternal life," from Old French predestinacion and directly from Church Latin praedestinationem (nominative praedestinatio) "a determining beforehand," noun of action from past-participle stem of praedestinare "set before as a goal; appoint or determine beforehand," from Latin prae "before" (see pre-) + destinare "appoint, determine" (see destine (v.)).

The Latin word was first used in the theological sense by Augustine; given prominence by Calvin. Related: Predestinarian "one who believes in the doctrine of predestination" (1660s).

Predestination to Life is the everlasting purpose of God, whereby (before the foundations of the world were laid) he hath constantly decreed by his counsel secret to us, to deliver from curse and damnation those whom he hath chosen in Christ out of mankind, and to bring them by Christ to everlasting salvation, as vessels made to honour. Wherefore, they which be endued with so excellent a benefit of God be called according to God's purpose by his Spirit working in due season: they through Grace obey the calling: they be justified freely: they be made sons of God by adoption: they be made like the image of his onlybegotten Son Jesus Christ: they walk religiously in good works, and at length, by God's mercy, they attain to everlasting felicity. [From article xvii of the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion of the Church of England]
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