late 13c. (in a biblical context), "strong liquor;" mid-14c., "liquor made from the juice of fruits," from Old French cidre, cire "pear or apple cider" (12c., Modern French cidre), variant of cisdre, from Late Latin sicera, Vulgate rendition of Hebrew shekhar, a word used for any strong drink (translated in Old English as beor, taken untranslated in Septuagint Greek as sikera), related to Arabic sakar "strong drink," sakira "was drunk."
Meaning gradually narrowed in English to mean exclusively "fermented drink made from apples," though this sense also was in Old French. Later applied to any expressed juice of apples, either before or after fermentation (19c.). The former is distinguished as sweet cider, the latter as hard cider.
mid-15c., pomis, "pulp of apples or similar fruits crushed by grinding, cider," from Medieval Latin pomacium or Old French pomaz, plural of pome "cider; apple," from Latin pomum "fruit; apple" (see Pomona).
type of apple in high repute 19c. for cider, 1727, from Irish cac a gheidh, literally goose-turd; so called for its greenish color.
also sillibub, syllabub, sullibib, sillie bube, etc., "a drink or dish of raw milk and wine or cider, often sweetened," 1530s, a word of unknown origin. The figurative sense of "floridly vapid prose" is from 1706.
1560s, "a perfumed ointment, especially as used for the scalp and in dressing the hair," from French pommade "an ointment" (16c.), from Italian pomata, from pomo "apple," from Latin pomum "fruit; apple" (see Pomona). So called because the original ointment recipe contained mashed apples. It is attested late 14c. as "a kind if cider or other drink made from apples."
a red light as a sign to stop is from 1849, long before traffic signals; see red (adj.1) + light (n.). As the name of a children's game (in reference to the traffic light meaning) it is recorded from 1953.
The use of red-light district to indicate a city district with many brothels is by 1896.
On a few blocks east of the Bowery, in what was known as the Red Light district, there are still a few houses of this character. The Red Light district was so called because the hall light in disreputable houses had a red globe or shone through red curtains covering the transom of the hall door. A red light before a cigar store, cider room or coffee room indicated its purpose. The Parisian licensed brothel has a red lantern with the number of the house over the door. [I.L. Nascher, M.D., "The Wretches of Povertyville," Chicago, 1909]
"thick fish soup," 1751, American English, apparently named for the pot it was cooked in: French chaudière "a pot" (12c.), from Late Latin caldaria "cooking pot" (source of Spanish calderon, Italian calderone), from Latin calidarium "hot bath," from calidus "warm, hot" (from PIE root *kele- (1) "warm").
The word and the practice were introduced in Newfoundland by Breton fishermen and spread from there to the Maritimes and New England.
CHOWDER. A favorite dish in New England, made of fish, pork, onions, and biscuit stewed together. Cider and champagne are sometimes added. Pic-nic parties to the sea-shore generally have a dish of chowder, prepared by themselves in some grove near the beach, from fish caught at the same time. [John Russell Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1859]
The modern form of it usually features clams. In New England, usually made with milk; the Manhattan version is made with tomatoes. The derogatory chowderhead (1819) is a corruption of cholter-head (16c.), from jolt-head, which is of unknown origin.
c. 1300, presse, "a crowd, throng, company; crowding and jostling of a throng; a massing together," from Old French presse (n.) "a throng, a crush, a crowd; wine or cheese press" (11c.), from Latin pressare (see press (v.1)). Late Old English had press in the sense of "clothes press," but the Middle English word probably is from French.
The general sense of "instrument or machine by which anything is subjected to pressure" is from late 14c.: "device for pressing cloth," also "device to squeeze juice from grapes, oil from olives, cider from apples, etc." The sense of "urgency, urgent demands of affairs" is from 1640s. Weightlifting sense is from 1908. The basketball defense so called from 1959 (in full-court press).
The specific sense "machine for printing" is from 1530s; this was extended to publishing houses and agencies of producing printed matter collectively by 1570s and to publishing generally (in phrases such as freedom of the press) from c. 1680. This gradually shifted c. 1800-1820 to "the sum total of periodical publishing, newspapers, journalism." The press, meaning "journalists collectively" is attested from 1921 (though superseded by media since the rise of television, etc.).
Press agent, employed to tend to newspaper advertisements and supply news editors with information, is from 1873, originally theatrical; press conference "meeting at which journalists are given the opportunity to question a politician, celebrity, etc.," is attested from 1931, though the thing itself dates to at least World War I. Press secretary is recorded from 1940; press release "official statement offered to a newspaper for publication" is by 1918.
Via the sense "crowd, throng," Middle English in press meant "in public," a coincidental parallel to the modern phrase in the press.