Etymology
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crucify (v.)

mid-14c., "to put to death by nailing or otherwise affixing to a cross," from Old French crucifer crucefiier (12c., Modern French crucifier), from Vulgar Latin *crucificare, from Late Latin crucifigere "to fasten to a cross," from cruci, dative of Latin crux "cross" (see crux) + figere "to fasten, fix" (from PIE root *dheigw- "to stick, fix").

An ancient mode of capital punishment considered especially ignominious by the Romans and Greeks and reserved in general for slaves and highway robbers. In scripture, "subdue, mortify" (the flesh, etc.), early 14c. Figurative sense of "to torment" is from 1620s. Related: Crucified; crucifying.

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crucifix (n.)

"a cross or representation of a cross with the crucified figure of Christ upon in," early 13c., from Old French crucefix (12c., Modern French crucifix), from Latin cruci fixus "(one) fixed to the cross" (see crucify).

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crucifixion (n.)

"the putting to death of Christ on the hill of Calvary," early 15c., crucifixioun, from Late Latin crucifixionem (nominative crucifixio), noun of action from past-participle stem of crucifigere "kill by crucifixion; fasten to a cross" (see crucify).

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*dheigw- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to stick, fix." 

It forms all or part of: affix; crucifix; crucify; dig; dike; ditch; fibula; fiche; fichu; fix; fixate; fixation; fixity; fixture; infibulate; infibulation; microfiche; prefix; suffix; transfix.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit dehi- "wall;" Old Persian dida "wall, stronghold, fortress," Persian diz; Latin figere "to fix, fasten, drive, thrust in; pierce through, transfix;" Lithuanian dygstu, dygti "germinate;" Old Irish dingid "presses, thrusts down;" Old English dic "trench, ditch," Dutch dijk "dam." 

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cruciate (adj.)

"cross-shaped, having the form of a cross with equal arms," 1826, from Modern Latin cruciatus, from Latin crux (genitive crucis) "cross" (see crux (n.)). Obsolete meaning "tormented" is 1530s, from Latin cruciat-, past participle stem of cruciare "cause pain or anguish to," literally "crucify," from crux. Related: Cruciately; cruciation.

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excruciate (v.)

"to torture, torment, inflict very severe pain on," as if by crucifying, 1560s, from Latin excruciatus, past participle of excruciare "to torture, torment, rack, plague;" figuratively "to afflict, harass, vex, torment," from ex "out, out from; thoroughly" (see ex-) + cruciare "cause pain or anguish to," literally "crucify," from crux (genitive crucis) "a cross" (see crux).

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cross (v.)

c. 1200, "make the sign of a cross as an act of devotion," from cross (n.) and in part from French croiser. Sense of "to go across, pass from side to side of, pass over" is from c. 1400; that of "to cancel by drawing a line over or crossed lines over" is from mid-15c.

From late 14c. as "lie across; intersect;" also "place (two things) crosswise of each other; lay one thing across another." From early 15c. as "mark a cross on." Meaning "thwart, obstruct, hinder, oppose" is from 1550s. Meaning "to draw or run a line athwart or across" is from 1703. Also in Middle English in now-archaic sense "crucify" (mid-14c.), hence, figuratively, crossed "carrying a cross of affliction or penance."

Sense of "cause to interbreed" is from 1754. In telegraphy, electricity, etc., in reference to accidental contact of two wires on different circuits or different parts of a circuit that allows part of the current to flow from one to the other, from 1884. Meaning "to cheat" is by 1823.

Cross my heart as a vow is from 1898. To cross over as euphemistic for "to die" is from 1930. To cross (someone's) path "thwart, obstruct, oppose" is from 1818. Of ideas, etc., to cross (someone's) mind "enter into" (of an idea, etc.) is from 1768; the notion is of something entering the mind as if passing athwart it.

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