Old English crisp "curly, crimped, wavy" (of hair, wool, etc.) from Latin crispus "curled, wrinkled, having curly hair," from PIE root *sker- (2) "to turn, bend."
It began to mean "brittle" 1520s, for obscure reasons, perhaps based on what happens to flat things when they are cooked. Sense of "neat, brisk, having a fresh appearance" (1814) is perhaps a figurative use, or perhaps a separate word. Of air, "chill, bracing" by 1869.
As a noun from mid-14c., originally the name of a light, crinkly material formerly used for kerchiefs, veils, etc.; late 14c. as a kind of pastry. By 1826 as "overdone piece of anything cooked" (as in burned to a crisp). Potato crisps (now the British version of U.S. potato chips, but not originally exclusively British) is by 1897; as simply crisps by 1935. In U.S., crisps began to be used by 1903 in trade names of breakfast cereals. Related: Crisply; crispness.
late 14c., "to curl, to twist into short, stiff waves or ringlets" (of the hair, beard, mane, etc.) from crisp (adj.) or else from Old French crespir, Latin crispare, from the adjectives. Meaning "to become brittle" is from 1805. Related: Crisped; crisping; crispation.
"shoemaker," 1640s, in literary use only, from Ss. Crispin and Crispinian (martyred at Soissons c. 285), patrons of shoemakers. French hagiographers make the brothers noble Romans who, while they preached in Gaul, worked as shoemakers to avoid living on the alms of the faithful. Their day was Oct. 25. The name is Crispinus, a Roman cognomen, from Latin crispus "curly" (probably with reference to hair; see crisp (adj.)).
also *ker-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to turn, bend."
It forms all or part of: arrange; circa; circadian; circle; circuit; circum-; circumcision; circumflex; circumnavigate; circumscribe; circumspect; circumstance; circus; cirque; corona; crepe; crest; crinoline; crisp; crown; curb; curvature; curve; derange; flounce (n.) "deep ruffle on the skirt of a dress;" krone; ring (n.1) "circular band;" ranch; range; ranger; rank (n.) "row, line series;" research; recherche; ridge; rink; rucksack; search; shrink.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin curvus "bent, curved," crispus "curly;" Old Church Slavonic kragu "circle;" perhaps Greek kirkos "ring," koronos "curved;" Old English hring "ring, small circlet."
1560s, "sweet potato," from Spanish patata, from a Carib language of Haiti batata "sweet potato." Sweet potatoes were first to be introduced to Europe; they were in cultivation in Spain by mid-16c. and in Virginia by 1648. Early 16c. Portuguese traders carried the crop to all their shipping ports and the sweet potato was quickly adopted from Africa to India and Java.
"This was the original application of the name, and it is in this sense that the word is generally to be understood when used by English writers down to the middle of the seventeenth century" [Century Dictionary].
The name later (1590s) was extended (based on general likeness, both being esculent tubers) to the common white potato, native to Peru, which was at first (mistakenly) called Virginia potato, or, because at first it was of minor importance compared to the sweet potato, bastard potato. Spanish invaders in Peru began to use white potatoes as cheap food for sailors 1530s.
The first potato from South America reached Pope Paul III in 1540; it was grown in France at first as an ornamental plant. According to popular tradition, it was introduced to Ireland 1565 by John Hawkins. It was brought to England from Colombia by Sir Thomas Herriot, 1586.
German Kartoffel (17c.) is a dissimilation from tartoffel, ultimately from Italian tartufolo (Vulgar Latin *territuberem), originally "truffle." Frederick II forced its cultivation on Prussian peasants in 1743. The French is pomme de terre, literally "earth-apple;" a Swedish dialectal word for "potato" is jordpäron, literally "earth-pear."
Colloquial pronunciation tater is attested in print from 1759. Potato salad is by 1842 as a typical German dish; by 1844 in English cookery books. For Potato chip see chip (n.1); for the British alternative potato crisp see crisp (adj.). Slang potato trap "mouth" is attested from 1785. The Potato Famine in Ireland from 1845 to 1849 was so called by 1851, mostly outside Ireland; in it it is typically the Great Famine, Great Hunger, or Great Starvation.
To drop (something) like a hot potato is from 1824. Children's counting-out rhyme that begins one potato, two potato is recorded by 1885 in Canada.
cruciferous plant cultivated from antiquity for its crisp, slightly pungent, edible root, Middle English radich, from late Old English rædic "radish," from Latin radicem (nominative radix) "root, radish" (from PIE root *wrād- "branch, root"). The spelling in English is perhaps influenced by Old French radise, variant of radice, from Vulgar Latin *radicina, from radicem.
"light, crisp bits of hard bread or biscuit" ("formerly much used on board ships" - OED), 1590s, from Spanish or Portuguese rosca "roll, twist of bread," literally "coil, anything round and spiral," a word of unknown origin, perhaps from a pre-Latin Iberian language.
kind of doughnut fried crisp in boiling lard, 1805, American English, apparently from Dutch kruller, from krullen "to curl," from Middle Dutch crullen, which is cognate with curl (v.). Compare Frisian krillen, Swedish krulla; also Middle English crullen "to curl (the hair)."