Etymology
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Cornwall 

county in the far southwest of England, from Old English Cornwalas (891) "inhabitants of Cornwall," literally "the Corn Welsh," from the original Celtic tribal name *Cornowii (Latinized as Cornovii), literally "peninsula people, the people of the horn," from Celtic kernou "horn," hence "headland," from PIE *ker- (1) "horn; head, uppermost part of the body" (see horn (n.)), in reference to the long "horn" of land on which they live. To this the Anglo-Saxons added the plural of Old English walh "stranger, foreigner," especially if Celtic (see Welsh). The Romans knew it as Cornubia; hence poetic Cornubian.

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Cornish (adj.)

"of or pertaining to Cornwall," the county in the far southwest of England, late 14c. (as a surname), from first element of Cornwall (q.v.) + -ish. Earlier was Cornwalsche, Cornwalish (c. 1200). As a noun, the name of the ancient Celtic language of Cornwall, extinct as a spoken language since late 18c., from 1540s. Related: Cornishman.

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Welsh (adj.)
Old English Wielisc, Wylisc (West Saxon), Welisc, Wælisc (Anglian and Kentish) "foreign; British (not Anglo-Saxon), Welsh; not free, servile," from Wealh, Walh "Celt, Briton, Welshman, non-Germanic foreigner;" in Tolkien's definition, "common Gmc. name for a man of what we should call Celtic speech," but also applied in Germanic languages to speakers of Latin, hence Old High German Walh, Walah "Celt, Roman, Gaulish," and Old Norse Val-land "France," Valir "Gauls, non-Germanic inhabitants of France" (Danish vælsk "Italian, French, southern"); from Proto-Germanic *Walkhiskaz, from a Celtic tribal name represented by Latin Volcæ (Caesar) "ancient Celtic tribe in southern Gaul."

As a noun, "the Britons," also "the Welsh language," both from Old English. The word survives in Wales, Cornwall, Walloon, walnut, and in surnames Walsh and Wallace. Borrowed in Old Church Slavonic as vlachu, and applied to the Rumanians, hence Wallachia. Among the English, Welsh was used disparagingly of inferior or substitute things (such as Welsh cricket "louse" (1590s); Welsh comb "thumb and four fingers" (1796), and compare welch (v.)). Welsh rabbit is from 1725, also perverted by folk-etymology as Welsh rarebit (1785).
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Penzance 
place in Cornwall, Pensans (late 13c.), literally "Holy Headland," from Cornish penn "head" + sans "holy."
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pen- 

a Brythonic (Celtic) word for "head;" common in place names in Cornwall and Wales (such as Penzance; see also pendragon and Pennsylvania).

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Wessex 
Anglo-Saxon kingdom in southern England, literally "(land of the) West Saxons;" see west + Saxon. Modern use in reference to southwestern England (excluding Cornwall) is from Hardy's novels.
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shivaree (n.)
1843, earlier sherrie-varrie (1805), alteration of charivari. Century Dictionary describes it as "vulgar, southern U.S.;" OED describes it as "U.S. and Cornwall."
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hurling (n.)
verbal noun of hurl (q.v.); attested 1520s as a form of hockey played in Ireland; c. 1600 as the name of a game like hand-ball that once was popular in Cornwall.
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emmet (n.)
"ant," from Old English æmete (see ant), surviving as a dialect word in parts of England; also, according to OED, in Cornwall a colloquial name for holiday tourists.
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dumbledore (n.)

1787, a dialect word in Hampshire, Cornwall, etc. for "a bumblebee." Compare bumble-bee, also dore. The first element likely is imitative (dumble-, bumble-, humble- drumble- all seem to have been used interchangeably).

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