1570s, "speak against, oppose" (a sense now obsolete); 1580s, "assert the contrary or opposite of," from Latin contradictus, past participle of contradicere, in classical Latin contra dicere "to speak against," from contra "against" (see contra (prep., adv.)) + dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").
Meaning "deny the words or assertions of, speak in contradiction" is from c. 1600. Of statements, etc., "be inconsistent with," c. 1600. Related: Contradicted; contradicting; contradictive.
It forms all or part of: abdicate; abdication; addict; adjudge; apodictic; avenge; benediction; betoken; condition; contradict; contradiction; dedicate; deictic; deixis; dictate; diction; dictionary; dictum; digit; disk; ditto; ditty; edict; Eurydice; index; indicate; indication; indict; indiction; indictive; indite; interdict; judge; judicial; juridical; jurisdiction; malediction; malison; paradigm; policy (n.2) "written insurance agreement;" preach; predicament; predicate; predict; prejudice; revenge; soi-disant; syndic; teach; tetchy; theodicy; toe; token; valediction; vendetta; verdict; veridical; vindicate; vindication; voir dire.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit dic- "point out, show;" Greek deiknynai "to show, to prove," dike "custom, usage;" Latin dicere "speak, tell, say," digitus "finger," Old High German zeigon, German zeigen "to show," Old English teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach."
mid-15c., obloquie, "evil speaking, slander, calumny, derogatory remarks," from Medieval Latin obloquium "speaking against, contradiction," from Latin obloqui "to speak against, contradict," from ob "against" (see ob-) + loqui "to speak," from PIE root *tolkw- "to speak." Related: Obloquious.
"prove to be false or erroneous," late 14c., from Old French desprover "refute, contradict," from des- (see dis-) + prover "show; convince; put to the test" (see prove). Related: Disproved; disproving; disprovable. Middle English also had dispreven, from Old French desprover, with substitution of prefix.
"to unsay, to contradict or withdraw a declaration or proposition," 1530s, from Latin recantare "recall, revoke," from re- "back" (see re-) + cantare, literally "to chant, to sing" (from PIE root *kan- "to sing"). The English word is from the Reformation; the Latin verb is a loan-translation of Greek palinoidein "recant," from palin "back" + oeidein "to sing." Related: Recanted; recanting. It was used occasionally 17c. in an etymological sense of "sing over again" (with re- = "again").
The other verb lie once also had an identical variant form, from Old English belicgan, which meant "to encompass, beleaguer," and in Middle English was a euphemism for "to have sex with" (i.e. "to lie with carnally").
late 14c., opposen, "to speak or act against; accuse, question, interrogate," from Old French oposer "oppose, resist, rival; contradict, state opposing point of view" (12c.), apparently from assimilated form of Latin ob- "in the direction of, in front of" (see ob-) + French poser "to place, lay down" (see pose (v.1)), with the sense blended with that of Latin opponere "oppose, object to, set against" (see opponent). The meaning "to set or place over against or directly opposite" (transitive) and "interpose effort or objection, be adverse, act adversely" (intransitive) are from 1590s. Related: Opposed; opposing.
mid-15c., dissenten, "express a different or contrary opinion or feeling, withhold approval or consent," from Old French dissentir (15c.) and directly from Latin dissentire "differ in sentiments, disagree, be at odds, contradict, quarrel," from dis- "differently" (see dis-) + sentire "to feel, think" (see sense (n.)). Ecclesiastical sense of "refuse to be bound by the doctrines or rules of an established church" is from 1550s. Related: Dissented; dissenting.
The noun is 1580s, "difference of opinion with regard to religious doctrine or worship," from the verb. From 1650s as "the act of dissenting, refusal to be bound by what is contrary to one's own judgment" (the opposite of consent). From 1660s as "a declaration of disagreement." By 1772 in the specific sense of "refusal to conform to an established church."
Has there ever been a society which has died of dissent? Several have died of conformity in our lifetime. [Jacob Bronowski "Science and Human Values," 1956]
early 14c., reclaimen, "call back a hawk to the glove," from Old French reclamer "to call upon, invoke; claim; seduce; to call back a hawk" (12c., Modern French réclamer) and directly from Latin reclamare "cry out against, contradict, protest, appeal," from re- "opposite, against" (see re-) + clamare "cry out" (from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout").
"Call out; call back a hawk," hence "make tame" (mid-15c.), "subdue, reduce to obedience, make amenable to control" (late 14c.). Many Middle English senses lack an apparent notion of return or reciprocation (not unusual with Middle English re- words). Meaning "revoke" (a grant, gift, etc.) is from late 15c. That of "recall (someone) from an erring course to a proper state" is from mid-15c.
The sense of "get back by effort" might reflect influence of claim. The specific meaning "bring waste land into useful condition fit for cultivation" is attested by 1764, probably on notion of "reduce to obedience" (perhaps from the image of taming wild animals) rather than a suggestion of a return to a previous condition. Related: Reclaimed; reclaiming.