Etymology
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community (n.)
Origin and meaning of community

late 14c., "a number of people associated together by the fact of residence in the same locality," also "the common people" (not the rulers or the clergy), from Old French comunité "community, commonness, everybody" (Modern French communauté), from Latin communitatem (nominative communitas) "community, society, fellowship, friendly intercourse; courtesy, condescension, affability," from communis "common, public, general, shared by all or many" (see common (adj.)).

Latin communitatem "was merely a noun of quality ... meaning 'fellowship, community of relations or feelings' " [OED], but in Medieval Latin it came to be used concretely to mean "a society, a division of people." In English, the meaning "common possession or enjoyment" is from c. 1400. Sense of "a society or association of persons having common interests or occupations" also is from c. 1400.

An Old English word for "community" was gemænscipe "community, fellowship, union, common ownership," from mæne "common, public, general," and thus probably composed from the same PIE roots as communis. Middle English also had commonty (late 14c.) "the common people; a community," also later meaning "land held in common" (c. 1600).

Community service as a criminal sentence is recorded from 1972, American English. Community college, one offering post-secondary instruction geared to local needs and interests, is recorded from 1947, American English. Community chest "fund made up of individual donations to meet the needs of charity and social welfare in a community" is from 1919, American English.

The Community Chest is a device to consolidate all these separate [charitable] appeals, and go before the people once a year with a budget which appropriates to each organization the amount which it needs to make up the difference between its income from other sources, and its necessary expenses. By this means not only are the charities relieved of financial worry and adequately supported, but the public is spared the irritation of constant solicitation, which is all the more unbusinesslike because it is decentralized and not subject to outside disinterested scrutiny. ["New Jersey Municipalities," December 1919]
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communitarian (n.)

1841, "member of a commune or socialistic or communistic community," from commune or community + ending from utilitarian, etc. The adjective is attested from 1909.

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public-spirited (adj.)

"having a disposition to promote the interests or advantage of a community," 1670s, from public (adj.) in the sense of "directed to the interests of the community at large." Related: Public-spiritedness.

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umma (n.)
"the Islamic community," founded by Muhammad and bound to one another by religious ties and obligations, 1855, from Arabic 'umma "people, community, nation."
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polity (n.)

1530s, "civil organization;" 1640s, "an organized human society or community, body of persons forming a community governed according to a recognized system of government," from French politie (early 15c.) or directly from Late Latin polita "organized government" (see policy (n.1)).

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proletarianism (n.)

1844, "the condition, or political aims and influence, of the lower classes of a community," from proletarian + -ism.

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phytoplankton (n.)

"microscopic marine algae, the plant parts of the plankton community," 1897, from phyto- + plankton.

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public-mindedness (n.)

"disposition to promote the public interest, public spirit," 1690s, from public (adj.) in the sense of "directed to the interests of the community at large."

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Port Royal 

name of a convent near Versailles, in 17c. the home of a lay community notorious for Jansenism; hence Port-Royalist.

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methanol (n.)
"methyl alcohol," 1892 (adopted that year by the international scientific community), from methyl + -ol, suffix denoting "alcohol."
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