Etymology
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common (adj.)
Origin and meaning of common

c. 1300, "belonging to all, owned or used jointly, general, of a public nature or character," from Old French comun "common, general, free, open, public" (9c., Modern French commun), from Latin communis "in common, public, shared by all or many; general, not specific; familiar, not pretentious." This is from a reconstructed PIE compound *ko-moin-i- "held in common," compound adjective formed from *ko- "together" + *moi-n-, suffixed form of root *mei- (1) "to change, go, move," hence literally "shared by all."

The second element of the compound also is the source of Latin munia "duties, public duties, functions," those related to munia "office." Perhaps reinforced in Old French by the Germanic form of PIE *ko-moin-i- (compare German gemein, Old English gemne "common, public, general, universal;" see mean (adj.)), which came to French via Frankish.

Used disparagingly of women and criminals since c. 1300. Meaning "pertaining equally to or proceeding equally from two or more" is from c. 1400. Meaning "usual, not exceptional, of frequent occurrence" is from late 14c. Sense of "not distinguished, belonging to the general mass" is from c. 1400; of things, "ordinary, not excellent," late 14c.

Common pleas is 13c., from Anglo-French communs plets, hearing civil actions by one subject against another as opposed to pleas of the crown. Common prayer is that done in public in unity with other worshipers; contrasted with private prayer. Common stock is attested from 1888. Common speech (late 14c.) is the vernacular, as opposed to Latin. Common good (late 14c.) translates Latin bonum publicum "the common weal." The college common room (1660s) is one to which all members have common access. 

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common (n.)
Origin and meaning of common

c. 1300, "a fellowship or brotherhood; early 14c., "people of a community or town, freemen, citizenry;" late 15c., "land held in common," from Old French commune and Medieval Latin communia, and partly from common (adj.). Also compare commons. Latin communis "common, general" (adj.) also served as a noun meaning "common property; state, commonwealth."

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slipper (n.)

type of loose, light indoor footwear, late 14c., agent noun from slip (v.), the notion being of a shoe that is easily "slipped" onto the foot. Compare slip (n.2). Old English had slypescoh "slipper," literally "slip-shoe." By 1580s as characteristic of something you beat a child with as a disciplinary punishment. Related: Slippered. Also in creature-names, such as slipper-limpet (1828), slipper-shell (1825).

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common law (n.)

mid-14c., "the customary and unwritten laws of England as embodied in commentaries and old cases" (see common (adj.)), as opposed to statute law. Phrase common-law marriage is attested from 1909.

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common-sensical (adj.)

1839, from common sense, with ending as in nonsensical, etc. Common-sensible is attested from 1848.

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common sense (n.)

late 14c., originally an internal mental power supposed to unite (reduce to a common perception) the impressions conveyed by the five physical senses (Latin sensus communis, Greek koine aisthesis). Thus "ordinary understanding, without which one is foolish or insane" (1530s); the meaning "good sense" is from 1726. Also, as an adjective, common-sense "characterized by common sense" (1854).

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mule (n.2)

"loose slipper," 1560s, from French mule "slipper," from Latin mulleus calceus "red high-soled shoe," worn by Roman patricians, from mullus "red" (see mullet (n.1)). Related: Mules.

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sandal (n.)

type of shoe consisting of a sole fastened to the foot by thongs, the common footwear of ancient Greece and Rome, late 14c., from Old French sandale and directly from Medieval Latin sandalum, from Latin sandalium "a slipper, sandal," from Greek sandalion, diminutive of sandalon "a sandal," also "a flatfish," a word of unknown origin, probably foreign, perhaps from Persian. Related: Sandals.

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mayflower (n.)

"a flower that appears in May," c. 1600s; from May + flower (n.). Used of the hawthorn and locally for the lady's smock, the marsh marigold, and other plants that bloom in May. A popular ship name in early 17c.

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sock (n.1)

"knitted or woven covering for the foot, short stocking," early 14c., from Old English socc "slipper, light shoe," from Latin soccus "slipper, light low-heeled shoe," probably a variant of Greek sykchos, word for a kind of shoe, perhaps from Phrygian or another Asiatic language. The Latin word was borrowed generally in West Germanic (Middle Dutch socke, Dutch sok, Old High German soc, German Socke). To knock the socks off (someone) "beat thoroughly" is recorded from 1845, American English colloquial. Teen slang sock hop is c. 1950, from notion of dancing without shoes.

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