Etymology
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come (v.)

elementary intransitive verb of motion, Old English cuman "to move with the purpose of reaching, or so as to reach, some point; to arrive by movement or progression;" also "move into view, appear, become perceptible; come to oneself, recover; arrive; assemble" (class IV strong verb; past tense cuom, com, past participle cumen), from Proto-Germanic *kwem- (source also of Old Saxon cuman, Old Frisian kuma, Middle Dutch comen, Dutch komen, Old High German queman, German kommen, Old Norse koma, Gothic qiman), from PIE root *gwa- "to go, come."

The substitution of Middle English -o- for Old English -u- was a scribal habit before minims to avoid misreading the letters in the old style handwriting, which jammed them together (see U). Modern past tense form came is Middle English, probably from Old Norse kvam, replacing Old English cuom.

Meaning "to happen, occur" is from early 12c. (come to pass "happen, occur" is from 1520s). As an invitation to action, c. 1300; as a call or appeal to a person (often in expanded forms: "come, come," "come, now"), mid-14c. Come again? as an off-hand way of asking "what did you say?" is attested by 1884. For sexual senses, see cum.

Remarkably productive with prepositions (NTC's "Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs" lists 198 combinations); consider the varied senses in come to "regain consciousness," come over "possess" (as an emotion), come at "attack," come on (interj.) "be serious," and come off "occur, have some level of success" (1864). Among other common expressions are:

To come down with "become ill with" (a disease), 1895; come in, of a radio operator, "begin speaking," 1958; come on "advance in growth or development," c. 1600; come out, of a young woman, "make a formal entry into society," 1782; come round "return to a normal state or better condition," 1841; come through "act as desired or expected," 1914; come up "arise as a subject of attention," 1844; come up with "produce, present," 1934.

To have it coming "deserve what one suffers" is from 1904. To come right down to it "get to fundamental facts" is from 1875.

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come-down (n.)

"setback, sudden change for the worse in one's circumstances," 1840, from verbal phrase; see come (v.) + down (adv.). In 16c.-17c. "total destruction" was expressed metaphorically as "to come to Castle Comedown" (1560s).

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come-outer (n.)

1850, U.S. slang, "one who abandons or dissents from an established creed or religious custom," from verbal phrase; see come + out (adv.).

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come-at-able (adj.)

"capable of being approached, attainable," 1680s, from come + at + -able.

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supervene (v.)
1640s, "come as something additional," from Latin supervenire "come on top of, come in addition to, come after, follow upon," from super "over, upon" (see super-) + venire "to come," from a suffixed form of PIE root *gwa- "to go, come." Related: Supervened; supervening.
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intervent (v.)
"to come between" (obsolete), 1590s, from Latin interventus, past participle of intervenire "to come between, interrupt," from inter- "between" (see inter-) + venire "to come," from a suffixed form of PIE root *gwa- "to go, come." Related: Intervented; interventing.
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c'mon (v.)

representing the common pronunciation of the verbal phrase come on, by 1929. Come on! as an urge to advance or go with is from mid-15c. (see come).

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venire 
1660s, elliptical for venire facias (mid-15c.), Latin, literally "that you cause to come," formerly the first words in a writ to a sheriff to summon a jury, from venire "to come," from PIE root *gwa- "to go, come."
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intervenient (adj.)
c. 1600, from Latin intervenientem (nominative interveniens), present participle of intervenire "to come between, interrupt," from inter "between" (see inter-) + venire "to come," from a suffixed form of PIE root *gwa- "to go, come." Related: Interveniently.
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contravene (v.)

1560s, of persons, "to transgress," from French contravenir "to transgress, decline, depart," from Late Latin contravenire "to come against, oppose," in Medieval Latin "to transgress, break (a law)," from Latin contra "against" (see contra (prep., adv.)) + venire "to come" (from PIE root *gwa- "to go, come"). Of actions or things, "come or be in conflict with," 1660s. Related: Contravened; contravening.

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