"deep-dish fruit pie with thick, scone-like crust," 1859, American English, perhaps related to 14c. cobeler "wooden bowl or dish," which is of uncertain origin, or perhaps its shape simply reminded people of a cobblestone. Earlier cobbler was the name of a summer long drink made from wine or liqueur, crushed ice, and fruit slices (1809, in Washington Irving), which is sometimes said to be a shortening of cobbler's punch, but that term is not attested until 1847.
late 14c., (late late 13c. in surnames and place names), cobelere "one who mends shoes," of uncertain origin. It and cobble (v.) "evidently go together etymologically" [OED], but the historical record presents some difficulties. "The cobbler should stick to his last" (ne sutor ultra crepidam) is from the anecdote of Greek painter Apelles.
On one occasion a cobbler noticed a fault in the painting of a shoe, and remarking upon it to a person standing by, passed on. As soon as the man was out of sight Apelles came from his hiding-place, examined the painting, found that the cobbler's criticism was just, and at once corrected the error. ... The cobbler came by again and soon discovered that the fault he had pointed out had been remedied; and, emboldened by the success of his criticism, began to express his opinion pretty freely about the painting of the leg! This was too much for the patience of the artist, who rushed from his hiding place and told the cobbler to stick to his shoes. [William Edward Winks, "Lives of Illustrious Shoemakers," London, 1883]
[The tale is variously told, and the quote is variously reported: Pliny ("Natural History" XXXV.x.36) has ne supra crepidam judicaret, while Valerius Maximus (VIII.xiii.3) gives supra plantam ascendere vetuit. The version cited here confessedly is for the sake of the book name]
[T]he business of the Anglo-Saxon shoewright was much more extensive than that of the modern shoemaker ; in fact, all articles made of leather came within his province. Among these were leathern flasks, and various other vessels, as well as leather bags and purses. [Thomas Wright, "Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies," 1884]
In proverbs by 1580s (see cobbler (n.1)).