"small, high-pitched trumpet," early 14c., from Old French clarion "(high-pitched) trumpet, bugle" and directly from Medieval Latin clarionem (nominative clario) "a trumpet," from Latin clarus "clear" (see clear (adj.)). Clarion call in the figurative sense "call to battle" is attested from 1838 (clarion's call is from 1807).
"small, keyed, bellows-like wind instrument," 1830, from German Akkordion, from Akkord "musical chord, concord of sounds," from a verb similar to Old French acorder "agree, be in harmony," from Vulgar Latin *accordare (compare Italian accordare "to attune a musical instrument;" see accord (v.)), with suffix on analogy of clarion, etc. Invented 1829 by piano-maker Cyrill Demian of Vienna. The type with a keyboard instead of buttons is a piano accordion. Related: Accordionist.
*kelə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shout." Perhaps imitative.
It forms all or part of: acclaim; acclamation; Aufklarung; calendar; chiaroscuro; claim; Claire; clairvoyance; clairvoyant; clamor; Clara; claret; clarify; clarinet; clarion; clarity; class; clear; cledonism; conciliate; conciliation; council; declaim; declare; disclaim; ecclesiastic; eclair; exclaim; glair; hale (v.); halyard; intercalate; haul; keelhaul; low (v.); nomenclature; paraclete; proclaim; reclaim; reconcile.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit usakala "cock," literally "dawn-calling;" Latin calare "to announce solemnly, call out," clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim;" Middle Irish cailech "cock;" Greek kalein "to call," kelados "noise," kledon "report, fame;" Old High German halan "to call;" Old English hlowan "to low, make a noise like a cow;" Lithuanian kalba "language."
also fire-cracker, "exploding paper cylinder," by 1821, American English coinage for what is in England a cracker (n.1), but the longer U.S. word distinguishes it from the word meaning "biscuit" (cracker (n.2)). See fire (n.) + agent noun from crack (v.). Attested in newspapers from August 1821 listing the cargo of the brig Clarion, arrived at Boston from Canton, which included "31 boxes fire-crackers."
Sec 2 And be it enacted, That it shall not be lawful for any person to burn, explode or throw any burning fire cracker, squib, turpentine balls or fire serpents in this state. [act of the General Assembly of the state of New Jersey, Feb. 18, 1835]
"single-reeded tubular woodwind instrument with a bell mouth," 1768, from French clarinette (18c.), diminutive of clarine "little bell" (16c.), noun use of fem. of adjective clarin (which also was used as a noun, "trumpet, clarion"), from clair, cler, from Latin clarus (see clear (adj.)). Alternative form clarionet is attested from 1784.
The instrument, a modification of the medieval shawm, is said to have been invented c. 1700 by J.C. Denner of Nuremberg, Germany, and was a recognized orchestral instrument from c. 1775. The ease of playing it increased greatly with a design improvement from 1843 based on Boehm's flute.
After the hautboy came the clarinet. This instrument astonished every beholder, not so much, perhaps, on account of its sound, as its machinery. One that could manage the keys of a clarinet, forty five years ago, so as to play a tune, was one of the wonders of the age. Children of all ages would crowd around the performer, and wonder and admire when the keys were moved. [Nathaniel D. Gould, "Church Music in America," Boston, 1853]
German Clarinet, Swedish klarinett, Italian clarinetto, etc. all are from French. Related: Clarinettist.