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citadel (n.)

"fortress commanding a city," 1580s, from French citadelle (15c.), from Italian cittadella, diminutive of Old Italian cittade "city" (Modern Italian citta), from Latin civitatem (nominative civitas; also source of Portuguese citadella, Spanish ciuadela; see city).

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polis (n.)

"ancient Greek city-state," 1894, from Greek polis, ptolis "citadel, fort, city, one's city; the state, community, citizens," from PIE *tpolh- "citadel; enclosed space, often on high ground; hilltop" (source also of Sanskrit pur, puram, genitive purah "city, citadel," Lithuanian pilis "fortress").

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-polis 
word-forming element meaning "city," from Greek polis "city, citadel" (see polis).
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acropolis (n.)
"elevated part of a Greek city," often the site of original settlement and usually a citadel, 1660s, from Latinized form of Greek akropolis "citadel" (especially, with capital A-, that of Athens), from akros "highest, upper" (from PIE root *ak- "be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce") + polis "city" (see polis). The plural would be acropoles.
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Machu Picchu 

15c.  Inca citadel high in the Andes Mountains of Peru, from Quechua (Inca) machu "old man" + pikchu "peak."

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casbah (n.)
the old city or citadel of a North African city, 1738, from French casbah, from North African Arabic dialect kasba "fortress."
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Kremlin 
1660s, Cremelena, from Old Russian kremlinu, later kremlin (1796), from kreml' "citadel, fortress," a word perhaps of Tartar origin. Originally the citadel of any Russian town or city, now especially the one in Moscow (which enclosed the imperial palace, churches, etc.). Used metonymically for "government of the U.S.S.R." from 1933. The modern form of the word in English might be via French.
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-grad 
Russian, "city," from Old Church Slavonic gradŭ "town, city, citadel," from PIE *ghor-dho-, from root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose," with derivatives referring to enclosure.
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castellated (adj.)

"furnished with turrets and battlements," 1670s, from Medieval Latin castellatus "built like a castle," past participle of castellare "to fortify as a castle, build as a castle, furnish with turrets and battlements," from Latin castellum "castle, fort, citadel, stronghold" (see castle (n.)). Related: Castellation.

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palladium (n.1)

"a safeguard," c. 1600, originally (late 14c., Palladioun) "a sacred image of Pallas Athene," from Old French palladion, from Latin palladium, from Greek Palladion, noun use of neuter of Palladios "of Pallas." It stood in the citadel of Troy and the safety of the city was believed to depend on it. Related: Palladian.

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