Etymology
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metal (n.)

an undecomposable elementary substance having certain recognizable qualities (opacity, conductivity, plasticity, high specific gravity, etc.), mid-13c., from Old French metal "metal; material, substance, stuff" (12c.), from Latin metallum "metal, mineral; mine, quarry," from Greek metallon "metal, ore" (senses found only in post-classical texts, via the notion of "what is got by mining"); originally "mine, quarry-pit," probably a back-formation from metalleuein "to mine, to quarry," a word of unknown origin. Perhaps related somehow to metallan "to seek after," but Beekes finds this "hardly convincing."

The concept was based on the metals known from antiquity: gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, and tin. As an adjective, "of or covered with metal," from late 14c. As short for heavy metal (rock music) by 1980. Metal-work "work, especially artistic work, in metal" is by 1724.

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non-metal (n.)

also nonmetal, "an element which is not a metal," 1866, from non- + metal. Related: Non-metallic (1815).

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gun-metal (n.)
type of bronze or other alloy formerly used in the manufacture of light cannons (since superseded by steel), 1540s, from gun (n.) + metal. Used attributively of a dull blue-gray color since 1905.
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bell-metal (n.)
"alloy used in making cast bells," 1540s, from bell (n.) + metal (n.). Typically copper and tin, with a higher proportion of tin than usual in bronze.
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metallic (adj.)

early 15c., "of metal, made from metal," from Latin metallicus "of or belonging to metal," from Greek metallikos, from metallon "metal, ore" (see metal). Specific use in chemistry, indicating the condition of a metal in which it exists by itself, not mineralized or combined with substances which convert it into an ore, is by 1797.

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bushing (n.)
"metal sleeve fitted into a machine or hole," 1839, from gerundive of bush (n.) "metal lining of the axle hole of a wheel or touch hole of a gun" (1560s), which is from Middle Dutch busse "box" (cognate with the second element in blunderbuss). Bush-metal "hard brass, gun-metal" is attested from 1847.
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metallurgy (n.)

"the science of smelting," 1670s, from Modern Latin metallurgia, from Greek metallourgos "worker in metal," from metallon "metal" (see metal) + -ergos "that works," from ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do"). Related: Metallurgical; metallurgist (1660s).

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scrap-yard (n.)

also scrapyard, "place where metal or metal machinery is taken for scrap," 1875, from scrap (n.1) + yard (n.1).

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alloy (n.)
early 14c. "relative freedom of a noble metal from alloy or other impurities," from Anglo-French alai, Old French aloi "alloy," from aloiier (see alloy (v.)). Meaning " base metal alloyed with a noble metal" is from c. 1400. Modern spelling from late 17c. Meaning "any mixture of metals," without reference to values is from 1827.
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sprue (n.)
"piece of metal (later plastic) attached to a cast object," 1875, earlier (1849) "channel through which metal is poured into a mold;" of unknown origin.
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