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substance (n.)
c. 1300, "essential nature, real or essential part," from Old French sustance, substance "goods, possessions; nature, composition" (12c.), from Latin substantia "being, essence, material," from substans, present participle of substare "stand firm, stand or be under, be present," from sub "up to, under" (see sub-) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."

Latin substantia translates Greek ousia "that which is one's own, one's substance or property; the being, essence, or nature of anything." Meaning "any kind of corporeal matter" is first attested mid-14c. Sense of "the matter of a study, discourse, etc." first recorded late 14c.
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chemical (n.)

"a substance produced by a chemical process, a chemical agent," 1747, from chemical (adj.). Related: Chemicals.

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chemical (adj.)

1570s, "relating to chemistry, pertaining to the phenomena with which chemistry deals," from chemic "of alchemy" (a worn-down derivative of Medieval Latin alchimicus; see alchemy) + -al (1). In early use also of alchemy. Related: Chemically. Chemical warfare is attested from 1917.

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reagent (n.)

1785, originally in chemistry, "a substance used to effect chemical change in another substance to render its nature more evident," from re- + agent (n.) "substance that produces a chemical reaction."

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keratin (n.)
basic substance of horns, nails, feathers, etc., 1848, from Greek keras (genitive keratos) "horn of an animal; horn as a substance" (from PIE root *ker- (1) "horn; head") + chemical suffix -in (2).
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neurotransmitter (n.)

"chemical substance which transmits an impulse from one nerve fiber to another or others," 1959, from neuro- + transmitter.

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creatinine (n.)

"alkaline substance obtained by the action of acids on creatine," by 1847, from creatine + chemical suffix -ine (2).

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prostaglandin (n.)

substance found in seminal fluid, 1936, from German (1935); see prostate + gland + chemical suffix -in (2).

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detergent (n.)

"detergent substance," 1670s, from detergent (adj.). Originally a medical term; application to "chemical cleansing product" is by 1932.

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albumin (n.)
chemical substance named for the Latin word for "the whites of eggs," where it occurs naturally, 1869; see albumen.
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