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cardigan (n.)
"close-fitting knitted woolen jacket or waistcoat," 1868, from James Thomas Brudenell (1797-1868), 7th Earl of Cardigan, English general distinguished in the Crimean War, who set the style, in one account supposedly wearing such a jacket while leading the Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaclava (1854). The place name is an Englishing of Welsh Ceredigion, literally "Ceredig's land." Ceredig lived in the 5th century.
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corgi (n.)

"breed of short-legged dog originally bred in Wales for herding cattle," 1921, from Welsh corgi, from cor "dwarf" + ci "dog" (from PIE root *kwon- "dog").

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Welsh (adj.)
Old English Wielisc, Wylisc (West Saxon), Welisc, Wælisc (Anglian and Kentish) "foreign; British (not Anglo-Saxon), Welsh; not free, servile," from Wealh, Walh "Celt, Briton, Welshman, non-Germanic foreigner;" in Tolkien's definition, "common Gmc. name for a man of what we should call Celtic speech," but also applied in Germanic languages to speakers of Latin, hence Old High German Walh, Walah "Celt, Roman, Gaulish," and Old Norse Val-land "France," Valir "Gauls, non-Germanic inhabitants of France" (Danish vælsk "Italian, French, southern"); from Proto-Germanic *Walkhiskaz, from a Celtic tribal name represented by Latin Volcæ (Caesar) "ancient Celtic tribe in southern Gaul."

As a noun, "the Britons," also "the Welsh language," both from Old English. The word survives in Wales, Cornwall, Walloon, walnut, and in surnames Walsh and Wallace. Borrowed in Old Church Slavonic as vlachu, and applied to the Rumanians, hence Wallachia. Among the English, Welsh was used disparagingly of inferior or substitute things (such as Welsh cricket "louse" (1590s); Welsh comb "thumb and four fingers" (1796), and compare welch (v.)). Welsh rabbit is from 1725, also perverted by folk-etymology as Welsh rarebit (1785).
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*kwon- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "dog."

It forms all or part of: canaille; canary; canicular; canid; canine; chenille; corgi; cynic; cynical; cynosure; dachshund; hound; kennel; Procyon; quinsy.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit svan-, Avestan spa, Greek kyōn, Latin canis, Old English hund, Old High German hunt, Old Irish cu, Welsh ci, Russian sobaka (apparently from an Iranian source such as Median spaka), Armenian shun, Lithuanian šuo "dog."

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rarebit (n.)

1785, an absurd perversion of (Welsh) rabbit, as if from rare (adj.) + bit (n.). See Welsh.

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Eisteddfod (n.)
"annual assembly of Welsh bards," 1822, from Welsh eisteddfod "congress of bards or literati," literally "a session, a sitting," from eistedd "to sit" (from sedd "seat," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit") + bod "to be" (from PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow"). The Welsh plural is eisteddfodau.
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Llanfair 
common in Welsh place names, literally "St. Mary's Church," from Welsh llan "church" (see land (n.)) + Mair "Mary," with lentition of m- to f-.
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Vaughan 
from Welsh fychan, mutation of bychan "small."
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Brythonic (adj.)
"of the (Celtic) Britons, Welsh," 1884, from Welsh Brython, cognate with English Briton, both from Latin Britto. Introduced into modern English by Welsh Celtic scholar Professor John Rhys (1840-1915) to avoid the confusion of using Briton/British with reference to ancient peoples, religions, and languages.
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