Etymology
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Canada 
1560s (implied in Canadian), said to be a Latinized form of a word for "village" in an Iroquoian language of the St. Lawrence valley that had gone extinct by 1600. Most still-spoken Iroquoian languages have a similar word (such as Mohawk kana:ta "town").

In early 18c. Canada meant French Canada, Quebec. The British colonies (including the American colonies) were British America. After 1791 the remainder of British America was Upper Canada (the English part), Lower Canada (the French part), New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and, separately, Newfoundland. An act of Parliament in 1840 merged Upper and Lower Canada, and in 1867 the Dominion of Canada was created from the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Canada goose is attested from 1772.
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Canadian (adj.)

"pertaining to Canada," 1560s; see Canada. Also as a noun, "native or inhabitant of Canada" (1759).

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canola (n.)
"rapeseed," a euphemistic name coined 1978, supposedly involving Canada, where it was developed, and the root of oil (n.). For the older name see rape (n.2).
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Canuck (n.)
U.S. word for "a Canadian," especially a French-Canadian, 1835, perhaps a cross between Canada and Chinook, the native people in the Columbia River region. Often, but not always, more or less slighting. As an adjective from 1853. The NHL team in Vancouver joined the league in 1970; the name had been used by a minor league franchise there from 1945.
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Slave 
Indian tribe of northwestern Canada, 1789, from slave (n.), translating Cree (Algonquian) awahkan "captive, slave."
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tuque (n.)
type of cap worn in Canada, 1871, from Canadian French variant of French toque (see toque).
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Mackenzie 

river in Canada, named for Scottish fur trader and explorer Sir Alexander Mackenzie, who discovered and explored it 1789.

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Tlingit (n.)
Indian group in southwestern Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada, 1865, the people's word for themselves, literally "human beings."
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Yukon 
territory of northwestern Canada, named for the river, from Athabaskan, perhaps Koyukon yookkene or Lower Tanana yookuna, said to mean "big river."
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Athabaskan 

also Athabascan, Athapaskan, 1844 as a language name, from the name of the widespread family of North American Indian languages, from Lake Athabaska in northern Alberta, Canada, from Woods Cree (Algonquian) Athapaskaw, literally "(where) there are plants one after another" [Bright], referring to the delta region west of the lake. The languages are spoken across a wide area of Alaska and sub-arctic Canada and include Apachean (including Navajo) in the U.S. southwest.

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