Etymology
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calcaneus (n.)

"heel-bone," 1751, from Latin (os) calcaneum "bone of the heel," from calcem (nominative calx (1)) "heel," a word of uncertain origin, perhaps from Etruscan. De Vaan lists as possible cognates Old Prussian culczi "hip," Lithuanian kulkšnis "ankle-(bone)," Bulgarian kalka "hip, thigh." Related: Calcaneal.

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discalceate (adj.)

"unshod, barefoot," 1650s, from Latin discalceatus, from dis- (see dis-) + calceatus, past participle of calceare "to furnish with shoes," from calceus "shoe," from calx "heel" (see calcaneus). Related: Discalceation.

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calque (n.)

"loan translation of a foreign word or phrase," 1937, from French calque, literally "a copy," from calquer "to trace by rubbing" (itself borrowed in English 1660s as calk "to copy by tracing"), a 16c. borrowing by French of Italian calcare, from Latin calcare "to tread, to press down," from calx (1) "heel" (see calcaneus). 

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inculcate (v.)

"enforce or stamp upon the mind," especially by admonitions or forcible statement,  1540s, from Latin inculcatus, past participle of inculcare "force upon, insist; stamp in, impress, tread down," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + calcare "to tread, press in," from calx (1) "heel" (see calcaneus). Related: Inculcated; inculcating.

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recalcitrant (adj.)

"refusing to submit, not submissive or compliant," 1823, from French récalcitrant, literally "kicking back" (17c.-18c.), from Late Latin recalcitrantem (nominative recalcitrans), present participle of recalcitrare "to kick back" (of horses), also "be inaccessible," in Late Latin "to be petulant or disobedient;" from re- "back" (see re-) + Latin calcitrare "to kick," from calx (genitive calcis) "heel" (see calcaneus). Used from 1797 as a French word in English.

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causeway (n.)

"road or path raised above the natural level of the ground," as a dry passage over wet places or along the top of an embankment, 1570s, from Middle English cauceweye "raised road" (mid-15c.). The first element is from Anglo-French cauce, Old North French cauciee (12c., Modern French chaussée), from Vulgar Latin *via calciata "paved way," from Latin calcis, genitive of calx (2) "limestone," or Late Latin calciare "to stamp with the heels, tread" (on the notion of a road or mound across marshy ground made firm by treading down), from Latin calx (1) "heel" (see calcaneus). For second element, see way (n.).

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decal (n.)

"picture transferred from a specially prepared paper to some other surface," by 1909, shortening of decalcomania (1864), from French décalcomanie, from décalquer (18c.) "transferring of a tracing from specially prepared paper to glass, porcelain, etc." (in vogue in France 1840s, England 1862-64), from de- "off" (see de-) + calquer "to press," from Italian calcare, from Latin calcare "to tread on, press," from calx (1) "heel" (see calcaneus).

Time was when there were only printers employed in making the sheets that were stuck on the ware, giving the old-time term of "plain print." This form of decoration was succeeded a few years ago by the decalcomania or "decal." This "decal" is an imported sheet, lithographed, and the little sprigs, flowers and scenes are cut out and stuck on the ware. [Brick, the Leading Clay Journal, April 1909]
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cockatrice (n.)

fabulous monster, late 14c., from Old French cocatriz, altered (by influence of coq) from Late Latin *calcatrix, from Latin calcare "to tread" (from calx (1) "heel;" see calcaneus), as translation of Greek ikhneumon, literally "tracker, tracer." It was fabled to kill by its glance and could be slain only by tricking it into seeing its own reflection.

In classical writings, an Egyptian animal of some sort, the mortal enemy of the crocodile, which it tracks down and kills. This vague sense became hopelessly confused in the Christian West, and in England the word ended up applied to the equivalent of the basilisk. Popularly associated with cock (n.1), hence the fable that it was a serpent hatched from a cock's egg. It also sometimes was confused with the crocodile. Belief in them persisted even among the educated because the word was used in the KJV several times to translate a Hebrew word for "serpent." In heraldry, a beast half cock, half serpent. Also, in old slang, "a loose woman" (1590s).

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