Etymology
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charge (n.)

c. 1200, "a load, a weight," from Old French charge "load, burden; imposition," from chargier "to load, to burden," from Late Latin carricare "to load a wagon or cart," from Latin carrus "two-wheeled wagon" (see car). A doublet of cargo.

The meaning "responsibility, burden" is from mid-14c. (as in take charge, late 14c.; in charge, 1510s), which progressed to "pecuniary burden, cost, burden of expense" (mid-15c.), and then to "price demanded for service or goods" (1510s). The meaning "anything committed to another's custody, care, or management" is from 1520s.

The legal sense of "accusation" is late 15c.; earlier "injunction, order" (late 14c.). The meaning "address delivered by a judge to a jury at the close of a trial" is from 1680s. The electrical sense is from 1767.

The slang meaning "thrill, kick" (American English) is from 1951. The meaning "quantity of powder required for one discharge of a firearm" is from 1650s. The military meaning "impetuous attack upon an enemy" is from 1560s; as an order or signal to make such an attack, 1640s.

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charge (v.)

early 13c., chargen, "to load, put a burden on or in; fill with something to be retained," from Old French chargier "to load, burden, weigh down," from Late Latin carricare "to load a wagon or cart," from Latin carrus "two-wheeled wagon" (see car).

The senses of "entrust," "command," and "accuse" all emerged in Middle English and were found in Old French. The sense of "rush in to attack, bear down upon" is from 1560s, perhaps through the earlier meaning "load a weapon" (1540s). The meaning "impose a burden of expense" is from mid-14c. That of "to fix or ask as a price" is from 1787; the meaning "hold liable for payment, enter a debt against" is by 1889. The meaning "fill with electricity" is from 1748. Related: Charged; charging.

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re-charge (v.)

"rush at or attack back or again," intransitive, 1590s, from re- "back, again" + charge (v.). Related: Re-charged; re-charging.

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charge d'affaires (n.)

"one who transacts diplomatic business with a foreign government during the absence of a superior," 1767, from French chargé d'affaires, literally "(one) charged with affairs;" see charge (v.) + affair (n.).

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re-charge (v.)

"rush at or attack back or again," intransitive, 1590s, from re- "back, again" + charge (v.). Related: Re-charged; re-charging.

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florescent (adj.)

"bursting into bloom," 1784, from Latin florescentem, present participle of florescere "to begin to bloom" (see florescence).

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countercharge (v.)

also counter-charge, "to charge in return," 1610s, from French contre-charger; see counter- + charge (v.). Related: Countercharged; countercharging. As a noun from 1706.

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rupture (n.)

late 14c., in medicine, "act of bursting or breaking," in reference to a vessel, etc. of the body, from Old French rupture and directly from Latin ruptura "the breaking (of a vein), fracture (of an arm or leg)," from past-participle stem of rumpere "to break" (from PIE root *runp- "to break;" see corrupt (adj.)).

Specifically as "abdominal hernia" from early 15c. The sense of "breach of friendly relations or concord" is by 1580s; the general sense of "act or fact of breaking or bursting" is by 1640s. Rupturewort (1590s) was held to be efficacious in treating hernias, etc.

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shrapnel (n.)

1806, "a shell filled with bullets and s small bursting charge," from the name of Gen. Henry Shrapnel (1761-1842), who invented such a shell as a lieutenant in the Royal Artillery during the Peninsular War. The invention consisted of a hollow cannon ball, filled with shot, which burst in mid-air in front of the enemy; his name for it was spherical case ammunition.

The modern erroneous use in reference to what are properly shell fragments is from 1940 and the Blitz. The surname is attested from 13c., and is believed to be a metathesized form of Charbonnel, a diminutive form of Old French charbon "charcoal," in reference to complexion, hair color, or some other quality.

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ebullience (n.)

1749, from Latin ebullientem (nominative ebulliens) "a boiling, a bursting forth, overflow," present participle of ebullire "to boil over" (see ebullient). Related: Ebulliency (1670s), ebullition (c. 1400).

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