Etymology
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break (v.)

Old English brecan "to divide solid matter violently into parts or fragments; to injure, violate (a promise, etc.), destroy, curtail; to break into, rush into; to burst forth, spring out; to subdue, tame" (class IV strong verb; past tense bræc, past participle brocen), from Proto-Germanic *brekanan (source also of Old Frisian breka, Dutch breken, Old High German brehhan, German brechen, Gothic brikan), from PIE root *bhreg- "to break."

Closely related to breach (n.), brake (n.1), brick (n.). The old past tense brake is obsolete or archaic; the past participle is broken, but shortened form broke is attested from 14c. and was "exceedingly common" [OED] 17c.-18c.

Of bones in Old English. Formerly also of cloth, paper, etc. The meaning "escape by breaking an enclosure" is from late 14c. The intransitive sense of "be or become separated into fragments or parts under action of some force" is from late 12c. The meaning "lessen, impair" is from late 15c. That of "make a first and partial disclosure" is from early 13c. The sense of "destroy continuity or completeness" in any way is from 1741. Of coins or bills, "to convert to smaller units of currency," by 1882.

In reference to the heart from early 13c. (intransitive); to break (someone's) heart is late 14c. Break bread "share food" (with) is from late 14c. To break ground is from 1670s as "to dig, plow," from 1709 in the figurative sense of "begin to execute a plan." To break the ice "overcome the feeling of restraint in a new acquaintanceship" is from c. 1600, in reference to the "coldness" of encounters of strangers. Break wind is attested from 1550s. To break (something) out (1890s) probably is an image from dock work, of freeing cargo before unloading it.

The ironic theatrical good luck formula break a leg (by 1948, said to be from at least 1920s) has parallels in German Hals- und Beinbruch "break your neck and leg," and Italian in bocca al lupo. Evidence of a highly superstitious craft (see Macbeth). According to Farmer & Henley, in 17c. the expression was used euphemistically, of a woman, "to have a bastard."

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break (n.)

c. 1300, "act of breaking, forcible disruption or separation," from break (v.). The sense in break of day "first appearance of light in the morning" is from 1580s; the meaning "sudden, marked transition from one course, place, or state to another" is by 1725.

The sense of "short interval between spells of work" (originally between lessons at school) is from 1861. The meaning "stroke of luck" is attested by 1911, probably an image from billiards (where the break that scatters the ordered balls and starts the game is attested from 1865). The meaning "stroke of mercy" is from 1914. The jazz musical sense of "improvised passage, solo" is from 1920s. The broadcasting sense is by 1941.

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away (adv.)

Middle English awei, from late Old English aweg, earlier on weg "on from this (that) place;" see a- (1) + way (n.).

The meaning "from one's own or accustomed place" is from c. 1300; that of "from one state or condition to another" is from mid-14c.; that of "from one's possession (give away, throw away) is from c. 1400. Colloquial use for "without delay" (fire away, also right away) is from the earlier sense of "onward in time" (16c.). The meaning "at such a distance" (a mile away) is by 1712. Intensive use (as in away back) is American English, attested by 1818. Of sporting events played at the other team's field or court, by 1893.

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jail-break (n.)

also jailbreak, "prison escape," 1828, from jail (n.) + break (n.). Verbal phrase to break jail is from 1735.

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break-even (adj.)

also breakeven; in reference to a balancing of cost and income, usually with point, 1938, from the verbal phrase (1910); see break (v.) + even (adv.). The verbal phrase in the financial sense is recorded from 1914.

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lay-away (n.)

also lay-away, 1961 in reference to a system of payments for reserved merchandise, from the verbal phrase (attested from c. 1400 as "to put away," especially "place in store for future use"); see lay (v.) + away (adv.). Earlier in the same sense, as an adjective, was Australian lay-by (1930).

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break-dancing (n.)

1982, but the style itself said to have evolved late 1970s in South Bronx. The reference is to the rhythmic break in a pop-dance song (see break (n.)), which the DJs isolated and the dancers performed to. Breakdown "a riotous dance, in the style of the negroes" [OED] is recorded from 1864. Related: Break-dance; break-dancer.

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get-away (n.)

also getaway, 1852, "an escape," originally in fox hunting, from verbal phrase get away "escape" (early 14c.); see get (v.) + away (adv.). Of prisoners or criminals from 1893.

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keep-away (n.)

as a game, 1925, from verbal phrase (attested from late 14c.); see keep (v.) + away (adv.).

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give-away (n.)

also giveaway, "act of giving away," 1872, from verbal phrase give away, c. 1400 (of brides from 1719); see give (v.) + away (adv.). The phrase in the meaning "to betray, expose, reveal" is from 1878, originally U.S. slang. Hence also Related: give-away (n.) "inadvertent betrayal or revelation" (1882).

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