Etymology
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damage (n.)
Origin and meaning of damage

c. 1300, "harm, injury; hurt or loss to person, character, or estate," from Old French damage, domage  "loss caused by injury" (12c., Modern French dommage), from dam "damage," from Latin damnum "loss, hurt, damage" (see damn). In law (as damages) "the value in money of what was lost or withheld, that which is given to repair a cost," from c. 1400. Colloquial sense of "cost, expense" is by 1755. Damage control "action taken to limit the effect of an accident or error" is attested by 1933 in U.S. Navy jargon.

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damage (v.)
Origin and meaning of damage

"cause damage to, hurt, injure, harm," early 14c., from Old French damagier, from damage "loss caused by injury" (see damage (n.)). Related: Damaged; damaging.

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brain (v.)

"to dash the brains out," late 14c., from brain (n.). Related: Brained; braining.

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brain (n.)

"soft, grayish mass filling the cranial cavity of a vertebrate," in the broadest sense, "organ of consciousness and the mind," Old English brægen "brain," from Proto-Germanic *bragnan (source also of Middle Low German bregen, Old Frisian and Dutch brein), a word of uncertain origin, perhaps from PIE root *mregh-m(n)o- "skull, brain" (source also of Greek brekhmos "front part of the skull, top of the head").

But Liberman writes that brain "has no established cognates outside West Germanic" and is not connected to the Greek word. More probably, he writes, its etymon is PIE *bhragno "something broken."

The custom of using the plural to refer to the substance (literal or figurative), as opposed to the organ, dates from 16c. The figurative sense of "intellectual power" is from late 14c.; the meaning "a clever person" is recorded by 1914.

To have something on the brain "be extremely eager for or interested in" is from 1862. Brain-fart "sudden loss of memory or train of thought; sudden inability to think logically" is by 1991 (brain-squirt is from 1650s as "feeble or abortive attempt at reasoning"). An Old English word for "head" was brægnloca, which might be translated as "brain locker." In Middle English, brainsick (Old English brægenseoc) meant "mad, addled."

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brain-child (n.)

"idea, creation of one's own mind," 1850, from brain (n.) + child. Earlier was the alliterative brain-brat (1630).

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brain-wave (n.)

"apparent telepathic vibration transferring a thought from one person to another without any other medium," 1869, from brain (n.) + wave (n.).

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brain-drain (n.)

"emigration of experts and trained people to richer countries from poorer ones," 1963, from brain (n.) + drain (n.).

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bird-brain (n.)

also birdbrain, 1936, slang, "stupid person," also perhaps suggestive of flightiness, from bird (n.1) + brain (n.). Bird-brained is attested from 1910 and bird-witted from c. 1600.

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brain trust (n.)

"group of experts assembled to give advice on some matter," occasionally used since early 1900s, it became current in 1933, in reference to the intellectuals gathered by the administration of incoming U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt as advisers; from brain (n.) + trust (n.).

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brain-teaser (n.)

"difficult puzzle or problem," 1893, from brain (n.) + agent noun from tease (v.).

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