borrow (v.)

Old English borgian "to lend, be surety for," from Proto-Germanic *burg- "pledge" (source also of Old English borg "pledge, security, bail, debt," Old Frisian borgia "borrow, take up money," Old Norse borga "to become bail for, guarantee," Middle Dutch borghen "to protect, guarantee," Old High German boragen "to beware of," German borgen "to borrow; to lend"), which is, according to Watkins, from PIE root *bhergh- (1) "to hide, protect."

The sense reversed in Old English to "take or obtain (something) on pledge to return it or security given," apparently on the notion of collateral deposited as security for something borrowed. Compare the sense evolution in sell (v.). The figurative use is from early 13c. As an operation in subtraction, 1590s. Related: Borrowed; borrowing. Phrase borrowed time is from 1848.

Related entries & more 
reborrow (v.)

"borrow back again, borrow anew," 1630s, from re- "back, again" + borrow (v.). Related: Reborrowed; reborrowing.

Related entries & more 
*bhergh- (1)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to hide, protect." It forms all or part of: bargain; borrow; burial; bury; harbor; hauberk; scabbard.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Old English Old English borgian "to lend, be surety for;" Old Church Slavonic brěgo "I preserve, guard," Lithuanian bìrginti "be parsimonious." But, absent other possible cognates, Boutkan writes that it is not certainly Indo-European and "probably a substratum word."

Related entries & more 
bargain (v.)

c. 1400, "engage in business transactions, discuss or arrange terms of a transaction; to vend or sell," from Old French bargaignier "to haggle over the price" (12c., Modern French barguigner), perhaps from Frankish *borganjan "to lend" or some other Germanic source, ultimately from Proto-Germanic *borgan "to pledge, lend, borrow" (source also of Old High German borgen; Old English borgian; from PIE root *bhergh- (1) "to hide, protect;" compare borrow).

Diez and others suggest that the French word comes from Late Latin barca "a barge," because it "carries goods to and fro." There are difficulties with both suggestions. Related: Bargained; bargaining. To bargain for "arrange for beforehand" is from 1801.

Related entries & more 
sumptuary (adj.)

"pertaining to expense," c. 1600, from Latin sumptuarius "relating to expenses," from sumptus "expense, cost," from sumere "to borrow, buy, spend, eat, drink, consume, employ, take, take up," contraction of *sub-emere, from sub "under" (see sub-) + emere "to take, buy" (from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute").

Related entries & more 
sumptuous (adj.)

late 15c., from Old French sumptueux or directly from Latin sumptuosus "costly, very expensive; lavish, wasteful," from sumptus, past participle of sumere "to borrow, buy, spend, eat, drink, consume, employ, take, take up," contraction of *sub-emere, from sub "under" (see sub-) + emere "to take, buy" (from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute"). Related: Sumptuously; sumptuousness.

Related entries & more 
despoil (v.)

c. 1200, despoilen, "rob, plunder, ravage;" c. 1300, "strip off" (clothes, armor, etc.); from Old French despoillier "to strip, rob, deprive of, steal; borrow" (12c., Modern French dépouiller), from Latin despoliare "to rob, despoil, plunder," from de- "entirely" (see de-) + spoliare "to strip of clothing, rob," from spolium "skin, hide; arms, armor; booty" (see spoil (v.)). Related: Despoiled; despoiling.

Related entries & more 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to leave."

It forms all or part of: delinquent; derelict; eclipse; eleven; ellipse; ellipsis; elliptic; lipo- (2) "lacking;" lipogram; loan; paralipsis; relic; relict; reliction; relinquish; reliquiae; twelve.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit reknas "inheritance, wealth," rinakti "leaves;" Greek leipein "to leave, be lacking;" Latin linquere "to leave;" Gothic leihvan, Old English lænan "to lend;" Old High German lihan "to borrow;" Old Norse lan "loan."

Related entries & more 
folk-music (n.)

"music of the people," 1852 (Andrew Hamilton, "Sixteen Months in the Danish Isles"), from folk in the "of the people" sense (also see folklore) + music. Modeled on German Volksmusik. In reference to a branch of modern popular music imitative of the simple and artless style of music originating among the common people (originally associated with Greenwich Village in New York City) it dates from 1958.

Of airs properly national, it should be remembered, the composers are not known. They are found existing among the people, who are ignorant of their origin. They are, to borrow a German phrase, folk-music. [Richard Grant White, "National Hymns," New York, 1861]
The term National Music implies that music, which, appertaining to a nation or tribe, whose individual emotions and passions it expresses, exhibits certain peculiarities more or less characteristic, which distinguish it from the music of any other nation or tribe.*
* The Germans call it Volksmusik, a designation which is very appropriate, and which I should have rendered folk-music, had this word been admissible. [Carl Engel, "An Introduction to the Study of National Music," London, 1866]
Related entries & more 
touch (v.)

late 13c., "make deliberate physical contact with," from Old French tochier "to touch, hit, knock; mention, deal with" (11c., Modern French toucher), from Vulgar Latin *toccare "to knock, strike" as a bell (source also of Spanish tocar, Italian toccare), perhaps of imitative origin. Related: Touched; touching.

From c. 1300 in the transitive sense "bring into physical contact," also "pertain to." Other senses attested from 14c. are "perceive by physical contact, examine by sense of touch," also "be or come into physical contact with; come to rest on; border on, be contiguous with;" also "use the sense of touch," and "mention, describe." From early 14c. as "affect or move mentally or emotionally," with notion of to "touch" the heart or mind. Also from early 14c. as "have sexual contact with." Meaning "to get or borrow money" first recorded 1760.

Touch-and-go (adj.) is recorded from 1812, apparently from the name of a tag-like game, first recorded 1650s (however, despite the coincidence, this in no way suggests an acronym origin for tag). Touch football is first attested 1933. Touch-me-not (1590s) translates Latin noli-me-tangere.

Related entries & more