Etymology
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Benjamin 
masc. proper name, in Old Testament, Jacob's youngest son (Genesis xxxv.18), from Hebrew Binyamin, literally "son of the south," though interpreted in Genesis as "son of the right hand," from ben "son of" + yamin "right hand," also "south" (in an East-oriented culture). Compare Arabic cognate yaman "right hand, right side, south;" yamana "he was happy," literally "he turned to the right."

The right was regarded as auspicious (see left and dexterity). Also see Yemen, southpaw, and compare deasil "rightwise, turned toward the right," from Gaelic deiseil "toward the south; toward the right," from deas "right, right-hand; south." Also compare Sanskrit dakshina "right; south," and Welsh go-gledd "north," literally "left."

In reference to a favorite younger son it is from the story of Jacob's family in Genesis. With familiar forms Benjy, Benny. Slang meaning "money" (by 1999) is from the portrait of Founding Father Benjamin Franklin on U.S. $100 bill. In some old uses in herb-lore, etc., it is a folk-etymology corruption of benzoin.
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bifocals (n.)
"bifocal spectacles," 1883, bi-focals; see bifocal. Invented by Benjamin Franklin, but he called them double spectacles.
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boozy (adj.)

"inebriated, drunken, sottish," 1719 (earlier bousy, in canting slang, 1520s), from booze (n.) + -y (2). It was one of Benjamin Franklin's 225 synonyms for "drunk" published in 1722. Related: Boozily; booziness.

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transsexualism (n.)
"intense desire to change one's sexual status, including the anatomical structure," 1953, coined by U.S. physician Harry Benjamin (1885-1986) from trans- + sexual. Transsexuality is recorded from 1941, but was used at first to mean "homosexuality" or "bisexuality." In the current sense from 1955.
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benday 

also Ben-Day, by 1905, a printing and photoengraving technique involving overlay sheets of small dots or lines, used to create shadow effect, etc., named for U.S. printer and illustrator Benjamin Day Jr., who developed it c. 1879.

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Big Ben (n.)
clock-bell in the Parliament tower in London, by 1861, generally said to have been named for Sir Benjamin Hall (1802-1867), first Chief Commissioner of Works, under whose supervision the bell was cast. The name later was extended to the clock itself and its tower.
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gal (n.)
slang pronunciation of girl, 1795, originally noted as a vulgarism (in Benjamin Dearborn's "Columbian Grammar"). Compare gell, 19c. literary form of the Northern England dialectal variant of girl, also g'hal, the girlfriend of a b'hoy (1849). Gal Friday is 1940, in reference to "Robinson Crusoe."
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stoichiometry (n.)
"science of calculating the quantities of chemical elements involved in chemical reactions," 1807, from German Stöchiometrie (1792), coined by German chemist Jeremias Benjamin Richter (1762-1807) from Greek stoikheion "one of a row; shadow-line of a sundial," in plural "the elements" (from PIE *steigh- "to stride, step, rise") + -metry "a measuring of." Related: Stoichiometric.
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Dexter 

masc. proper name, from Latin dexter "on the right hand" (from PIE root *deks- "right, opposite of left; south"). See dexter (adj.) and compare also Benjamin.

The English surname, however, is literally "a dyer," attested from c. 1300, from a variant of deie "dye" (see dye (n.)) + feminine agent suffix -ster. Its immediate source is Old English degstre, from deagian "to dye." The parallel form in Middle English was deister "dyer" attested from c. 1300, from 13c. as a surname (Deyster, Dygestre).

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claustrophobia (n.)

"morbid fear of being shut up in a confined space," coined 1879 (in article by Italian-born, French-naturalized Swiss-English physician Dr. Benjamin Ball), with -phobia "fear" + Latin claustrum "a bolt, a means of closing; a place shut in, confined place, frontier fortress" (in Medieval Latin "cloister"), from past participle of claudere "to close" (see close (v.)).

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