Etymology
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bell (v.)
"attach a bell to," late 14c., from bell (n.). Related: Belled; belling. Allusions to the story of the mice that undertook to bell the cat (so they can hear him coming) date to late 14c.
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bell (n.)

"hollow metallic instrument which rings when struck," Old English belle, which has cognates in Middle Dutch belle, Middle Low German belle but is not found elsewhere in Germanic (except as a borrowing); apparently from PIE root *bhel- (4) "to sound, roar" (compare Old English bellan "to roar," and see bellow).

As a division of daily time aboard a ship, by 1804, from its being marked by bells struck every half hour. Statistical bell curve is by 1920, said to have been coined was coined 1870s in French. Of glasses in the shape of a bell from 1640s. Bell pepper is from 1707, so called for its shape. Bell, book, and candle is a reference to a form of excommunication (the bells were rung out of order and all together to signify the loss of grace and order in the soul of the excommunicated).

To ring a bell "awaken a memory" (1934) is perhaps a reference to Pavlovian experiments; it also was a signal to summon a servant (1782).

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bell-jar (n.)
1830, so called for its shape, from bell (n.) + jar (n.). Earlier was bell-glass (1680s).
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bell-boy (n.)
also bellboy, from bell (n.) + boy; originally (1851) a ship's bell-ringer, later (1861) a hotel page.
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bell-bottoms (n.)
type of trousers, 1882, from bell (n.) + bottom (n.). Distinguished in the late 1960s from flares by the shape of the expanded part (flares straight, bell-bottoms of inverted cup-shape, like a bell).
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bell-metal (n.)
"alloy used in making cast bells," 1540s, from bell (n.) + metal (n.). Typically copper and tin, with a higher proportion of tin than usual in bronze.
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door-bell (n.)

also doorbell, "bell at a door, or connected to a knob outside a door, for the purpose of giving notice when someone desires admission," 1800, from door + bell (n.).

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handbell (n.)
one rung by hand rather than by rope, etc., Old English handbelle; see hand (n.) + bell (n.).
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bluebell (n.)
also blue-bell, popular name of various plants with flowers blue and more or less bell-shaped, 1570s, from blue (adj.1) + bell (n.).
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dumb-bell (n.)

also dumbbell, "one of a pair of weighted bars used for exercise," by 1785, earlier (from 1711), according to OED, an apparatus like that used to ring a church bell, but without the bell (hence dumb); used for physical exercise but sometimes also to practice ringing changes. See dumb (adj.) + bell (n.). If this is right, the word must have been transferred; earlier 18c. references make mention of "pulling" or "ringing" dumb-bells and note that it can be done only indoors. The following is a footnote to the 1903 reprint of Joseph Strutt's 1801 "The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England":

The origin of the term is somewhat curious. Dumb-bells take their name by analogy, as was pointed out in Notes and Queries in 1861, "from a machine used for exercise, consisting of a rough, heavy, wooden flywheel with a rope passing through and round a spindle ... and set in motion like a church bell." This statement, however, does not sufficiently explain the transference of such a name to the short bar and rounded lead or iron ends of a hand dumb-bell. This difficulty was explained by the late Chancellor Ferguson in a paper read before the Archaeological Institute in 1895, wherein a dumb-bell apparatus, now at Lord Sackville's seat at Knowle, was described and illustrated. The roller round which the rope winds and unwinds has four iron arms, each of which has a leaden poise or ball at the end, just like the end of an ordinary hand dumb-bell. This Knowle example is fixed in an attic and the rope passed through to a gallery beneath. Anyone pulling the rope would get much the same exercise as in pulling a bell rope in a church tower, but without annoying his neighbours by the noise. There used to be a similar apparatus at New College, Oxford.

Figurative sense of "blockhead, stupid person" attested by 1918, American English college slang.

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