Etymology
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astronomer (n.)

"one versed in the laws of the heavenly bodies," late 14c., from astronomy (q.v.) + -er (1). It replaced French import astronomyen (c. 1300), which, had it survived, probably would have yielded *astronomian. For sense differentiation, see astrology, and compare astrologer.

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*nem- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "assign, allot; take."

It forms all or part of: agronomy; anomie; anomy; antinomian; antinomy; astronomer; astronomy; autonomous; autonomy; benumb; Deuteronomy; economy; enumerate; enumeration; gastronomy; heteronomy; innumerable; metronome; namaste; nemesis; nimble; nim; nomad; nomothetic; numb; numeracy; numeral; numerator; numerical; numerology; numerous; numismatic; supernumerary; taxonomy.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek nemein "to deal out," nemesis "just indignation;" Latin numerus "number;" Lithuanian nuoma "rent, interest;" Middle Irish nos "custom, usage;" German nehmen "to take."

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Laplace 

in scientific phrases, a reference to French astronomer and mathematician Pierre Simon, Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827). Related: Laplacian (1836).

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Hubble (n.)

space telescope placed in orbit 1990, named for U.S. astronomer Edwin P. Hubble (1889-1953). Hubble's Law is from 1933.

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meteorologist (n.)

1620s, from meteorology + -ist. Earlier was meteorologician (1570s). Greek meteorologos meant "one who deals with celestial phenomena, astronomer."

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Oort cloud (n.)

in reference to a hypothetical cloud of small objects beyond Pluto that become comets, proposed 1949 by Dutch astronomer Jan Hendrick Oort (1900-1992), and named for him by 1968.

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palladium (n.2)

metallic element, coined 1803 by discoverer William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828), from Pallas, the name given to an asteroid discovered the previous year (by German astronomer Olbers) and named for the goddess (see Pallas).

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Ptolemaic (adj.)

1670s, "of or pertaining to Ptolemy," the 2c. Alexandrian astronomer whose geocentric model of the universe was accepted until the time of Copernicus and Kepler. Also (1771) "of the Ptolemies," The Macedonian Greek dynasty that ruled Egypt from the death of Alexander to Cleopatra. The earlier form was Ptolemaean (1640s).

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Fornax (n.)

goddess of ovens in ancient Rome, from Latin fornax "furnace, oven, kiln" (from PIE root *gwher- "to heat, warm"). The dim constellation (representing a chemical furnace) was created by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de La Caille in 1752.

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chromosphere (n.)

"gaseous envelope around the sun," 1868, coined by English astronomer Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer (1836-1920), from chromo-, from Greek khrōma "color" (see chroma) + sphere. So called for its redness. Related: Chromospheric.

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