Etymology
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article (n.)

c. 1200, "separate parts of anything written" (such as the statements in the Apostles' Creed, the clauses of a statute or contract), from Old French article (13c.), from Latin articulus "a part, a member," also "a knuckle; the article in grammar," diminutive of artus "a joint" (from PIE *ar(ə)-tu-, suffixed form of root *ar- "to fit together").

Meaning "literary composition in a journal, etc." (independent and on a specific topic, but part of a larger work) is recorded by 1712. The older sense is preserved in Articles of War "military regulations" (1716), Articles of Confederation (U.S. history), etc. The extended meaning "piece of property, material thing, commodity" (clothing, etc.) is attested by 1796, originally in rogue's cant.

The grammatical sense of "word used attributively, to limit the application of a noun to one individual or set of individuals" is from 1530s, from this sense in Latin articulus, translating Greek arthron "a joint," the part of speech (with different meanings in ancient Greek and modern English) so called on the notion of the "pivots" or "joints" on which the propositions in a sentence are in various ways tied together.

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articular (adj.)
"involving joints," early 15c., from Latin articularis "pertaining to the joints," from articulus "a joint" (see article).
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articulation (n.)

early 15c., "a joint or joining; setting of bones," from Old French articulation, from Medieval Latin articulationem (nominative articulatio) "separation into joints," noun of action from past-participle stem of articulare "to separate (meat) into joints," also "to utter distinctly," from articulus, diminutive of artus "joint" (see article). Meaning "the uttering of articulate sounds" is from 1610s.

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articulate (v.)
1590s, "to divide speech into distinct parts" (earlier in a now-obsolete sense "to formally bring charges against," 1550s), from Latin articulatus, past participle of articulare "to separate into joints," also "to utter distinctly," from articulus "a part, a member, a joint" (see article).

Generalized sense of "express in words" is from 1690s. In a physical sense, "to join, to attach by joints," it is attested from 1610s. Earlier sense "to set forth in articles" (1560s) now is obsolete or nearly so. Related: Articulated; articulating.
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*ar- 
also arə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to fit together."

It forms all or part of: adorn; alarm; aristarchy; aristo-; aristocracy; arm (n.1) "upper limb of the body;" arm (n.2) "weapon;" armada; armadillo; armament; armature; armilla; armistice; armoire; armor; armory; army; art (n.) "skill as a result of learning or practice;" arthralgia; arthritis; arthro-; arthropod; arthroscopy; article; articulate; artifact; artifice; artisan; artist; coordination; disarm; gendarme; harmony; inert; inertia; inordinate; ordain; order; ordinal; ordinance; ordinary; ordinate; ordnance; ornament; ornate; primordial; subordinate; suborn.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit irmah "arm," rtih "manner, mode;" Armenian arnam "make," armukn "elbow;" Greek arti "just," artios "complete, suitable," artizein "to prepare," arthron "a joint;" Latin ars (stem art-) "art, skill, craft," armus "shoulder," artus "joint," arma "weapons;" Old Prussian irmo "arm;" German art "manner, mode."
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el 
Spanish article, from Latin ille "that" (see le).
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immunize (v.)
1889, in a translation of a German article, from immune + -ize. Related: Immunized; immunizing.
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sidebar (n.)
"secondary article accompanying a larger one in a newspaper," 1948, from side (adj.) + bar (n.1).
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military (n.)

"soldiers generally," 1757, from military (adj.); commonly only with the definite article. Earlier, "a military man" (1736).

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pettitoes (n.)

1550s, "the toes or feet of a pig," especially as an article of food," from petit + toes. Sometimes in jocular use, "the human foot."

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