amendment (n.)

early 13c., "betterment, improvement;" c. 1300, of persons, "correction, reformation," from Old French amendement "rectification, correction; advancement, improvement," from amender "to amend" (see amend). The sense expanded 17c. to include "correction of error in a legal process" (c. 1600) and "alteration of a writ or bill" to remove its faults (1690s).

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incorrigibility (n.)

"incapability of correction or amendment," late 15c., incorrigibilite, from Medieval Latin incorrigibilitas; see incorrigible + -ity.

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e.r.a. (n.)

1949 in baseball as initialism (acronym) for earned run average. From 1971 in U.S. politics for Equal Rights Amendment.

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slaughterhouse (n.)

also slaughter-house, late 14c., "place or building where animals are butchered for meat," from slaughter (n.) + house (n.). Transferred by 1540s to scenes of human butchery. The 14th Amendment Slaughter-house cases in U.S. history were in 1873.

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correction (n.)

mid-14c., correccioun, "authority to correct;" late 14c., "action of correcting or chastising, rectification of faults (in character, conduct, etc.) by restraints or punishments," also "a bringing into conformity to a standard, model, or original," from Old French correccion (13c.) "correction, amendment; punishment, rebuke," from Latin correctionem (nominative correctio) "an amendment, improvement," noun of action from past-participle stem of corrigere "to put straight; to reform" (see correct (v.)).

Meaning "an instance of correction, that which is proposed or substituted for what is wrong" is from 1520s. House of correction "place of confinement, intended to be reformatory, for those convicted of minor offenses and not considered as belonging to the professional criminal class" was in an English royal statute from 1575.

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Miranda (2)

in reference to criminal suspects' arrest rights in U.S., 1967, from the name of rape and robbery suspect Ernesto Miranda (1941-1976) and his Fifth Amendment cases, ruled on by U.S. Supreme Court June 13, 1966, under the heading Ernesto A. Miranda v. the State of Arizona.

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abolition (n.)

1520s, "act of abolishing; state of being abolished," from French abolition or directly from Latin abolitionem (nominative abolitio) "an abolition, an annulling," noun of action from past-participle stem of abolere "destroy" (see abolish). Related: Abolitionary ("destructive"); abolitional ("pertaining to abolition").

Specific application to "opposition to the trans-Atlantic African slave trade" as a political question is first attested 1788. By 1823 abolition was being used in regard to proposals or arguments to end American slavery itself, and after 1832 this was the usual sense of the word until the effort was accomplished by the 13th Amendment (1865). The alternative noun abolishment (1540s) seems not to have acquired a special use in reference to slavery issues.

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seed (v.)

late 14c., sēden, "to flower, flourish; produce seed;" mid-15c., "to sow (the ground) with seed," from seed (n.).

The meaning "remove the seeds from" is by 1904. Sporting (originally tennis) sense is by 1898, from the notion of "spreading" certain players' names so as to ensure they will not meet early in a tournament. The noun in this sense is attested by 1924.

There is another question of tennis custom, if not tennis law, that has been agitated a good deal of late, and which still remains unsatisfactory, and this is the methods used in drawing the competitors in tournaments. The National Lawn Tennis Association prescribes no particular style for drawing. but the Bagnall-Wilde system is that used almost universally in open events. Several years ago, it was decided to "seed" the best players through the championship draw, and this was done for two or three years under protest from Dr. Dwight. ["Tennis Rules That Need Amendment," American Lawn Tennis, Jan. 13, 1898]

Related: Seeded; seeding. Late Old English had sædian, sedian.

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repent (v.)

c. 1300, repenten, "be grieved over one's past and seek forgiveness; feel such regret for sins, crimes, or omissions as produces amendment of life," from Old French repentir (11c.), from re-, here perhaps used as an intensive prefix, "very much" (see re-), + Vulgar Latin *penitire "to regret," from Latin poenitire "make sorry," from poena (see penal).

The distinction between regret (q.v.) and repent is made in many modern languages, but is absent in older periods. To repent is to regret so deeply as to change the mind or course of conduct in consequence and develop new mental and spiritual habits. Also from c. 1300 in Middle English and after in an impersonal reflexive sense, especially as (it) repenteth (me, him, etc.).

And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.
[Genesis vi.6, KJV, 1611]

Related: Repented; repenting.

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patriotism (n.)

"love of one's country; the passion which moves a person to serve his country, either in defending it or in protecting its rights and maintaining its laws and institutions," 1726, from patriot + -ism.

The patriotic quip My country, right or wrong traces to a toast given by U.S. War of 1812 naval hero Stephen Decatur at a public dinner in Norfolk, Va., in April 1816, but the original seems to have been "Our country; in her intercourse with other nations may she be always right; and always successful, right or wrong." [as reported in the Pittsfield, Mass., "Sun," July 4, 1816], or similar words.

In 1823 and for a few years after, "Our Country—Right or Wrong" was printed in U.S. newspapers as the name of a song played on patriotic occasions [e.g., Pittsfield, Mass., "Sun," July 10, 1823], and by the fall of 1823 Decatur's toast was being quoted as "Our Country—right or wrong" [Hartford "Courant," Nov. 25, 1823].

The amendment often attributed to Carl Schurz in 1872, who did say it on the floor of the Senate, seems to be older:

The Hon. Israel Washburn, of Maine, gave the following felicitous sentiment at the late Bangor celebration on the Fourth:
"Our Country—Our country, right or wrong; when right, to be kept right; when wrong to be put right."
[Wheeling, W.Va., "Daily Intelligencer," July 21, 1859] 
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