Etymology
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privative (adj.)

late 14c., privatif, "characterized by absence of a quality, characterized by taking away or removal of something," from Latin privativus "denoting privation," in grammar, "negative," from privatus, past participle of privare "to deprive, rob, strip" of anything; "to deliver from" anything" (see private (adj.)).

In grammar, from 1580s as "expressing negation, changing the sense of a word from positive to negative" (as do the prefixes un-, an- (1), in- (1), a- (3), etc.). Related: Privatively.

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alpha (n.)
c. 1300, from Latin alpha, from Greek alpha, from Hebrew or Phoenician aleph (see aleph). The Greeks added -a because Greek words cannot end in most consonants. Sense of "beginning of anything" is from late 14c., often paired with omega (the last letter in the Greek alphabet, representing "the end"); sense of "first in a sequence" is from 1620s. In astronomy, the designation of the brightest star of each constellation (the use of Greek letters in star names began with Bayer's atlas in 1603). Alpha male was in use by c. 1960 among scientists studying animals; applied to humans in society from c. 1992.
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a- (3)
prefix meaning "not, without," from Greek a-, an- "not" (the "alpha privative"), from PIE root *ne- "not" (source also of English un-).

In words from Greek, such as abysmal, adamant, amethyst; also partly nativized as a prefix of negation (asexual, amoral, agnostic). The ancient alpha privatum, denoting want or absence.

Greek also had an alpha copulativum, a- or ha-, expressing union or likeness, which is the a- expressing "together" in acolyte, acoustic, Adelphi, etc. It is from PIE root *sem- (1) "one; as one, together with."
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dethrone (v.)

c. 1600, "remove or drive from a throne, depose;" see de- (privative) + throne. Figurative sense "divest of power or authority" is from 1640s. Related: Dethroned; dethroning.

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beta (n.)

second letter of the Greek alphabet, c. 1300, from Greek, from Hebrew/Phoenician beth (see alphabet); used to designate the second of many things. Beta radiation is from 1899 (Rutherford). Beta particle is attested from 1904. Beta male, pejorative term for a risk-avoidant, non-confrontational man perceived as a follower or supporter rather than a leader, is by 2005, transferred from zoology (birds, primates), where it is attested by 1962 (compare alpha male under alpha).

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an- (1)
privative prefix, from Greek an-, "not, without," from PIE root *ne- "not"). The Greek prefix is a fuller form of the one represented in English by a- (3).
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Vega (n.)
1638, bright northern star, the alpha of Lyra, from Arabic (Al Nasr) al Waqi translated variously as "the eagle of the desert" or "the falling vulture" (or bird).
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demobilization (n.)

"action of disbanding troops; reduction of military forces to a peace status," 1866 (in reference to the Austro-Prussian War); see de- (privative) + mobilization. Earlier in German.

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Capella 
bright northern star (fifth brightest in the heavens), the alpha of the constellation Auriga, by 17c., from Latin capella, literally "little she-goat" (Greek kinesai kheimonas), diminutive of capra "she-goat," fem. of caper "goat" (see cab).
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A 

first letter of the Roman alphabet, based on Greek alpha (see alpha). In music from c. 1600 as the name of the sixth note of the natural scale; it is the note given by a fixed-tone instrument (usually oboe or organ) to which all the instruments of an orchestra are tuned. As a blood type, 1926, denoting A agglutinogens. The A side of a two-sided record (by 1962, see side (n.)) held the material chosen for promotion. A-bomb, short for atom bomb, was in newspaper headlines by Aug. 8, 1945.

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