Etymology
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gown (n.)
long, loose outer garment, c. 1300, from Old French goune "robe, coat; (nun's) habit, gown," related to Late Latin gunna "leather garment, skin, hide," of unknown origin. Used by St. Boniface (8c.) for a fur garment permitted for old or infirm monks. Klein writes that it is probably "a word adopted from a language of the Apennine or the Balkan Peninsula." OED points to Byzantine Greek gouna, a word for a coarse garment sometimes made of skins, but also notes "some scholars regard it as of Celtic origin."

In 18c., gown was the common word for what now usually is styled a dress. It was maintained more in the U.S. than in Britain, but was somewhat revived 20c. in fashion senses and in combinations (such as bridal gown, nightgown). Meaning "flowing robe worn on official occasions as a badge of office or authority" is from late 14c. As collective singular for "residents of a university" (1650s) it typically is used in rhyming opposition to town.
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academic (adj.)
Origin and meaning of academic
1580s, "relating to an academy," also "collegiate, scholarly," from Latin academicus "of the (classical Athenian) Academy," from Academia, name of the place where Plato taught (see academy).

From 1610s in English in the sense "belonging to the classical Academy in Athens." Meaning "theoretical, not practical, not leading to a decision" (such as university debates or classroom legal exercises) is from 1886. In the arts, "rigidly conforming to academic style," 1889. Academic freedom "liberty of a teacher to state opinions openly without fear of retribution," is attested from 1901. Related: Academical; academically; academicalism (1874); Johnson has academial.

As a noun, "student in college or university life," 1580s (Latin academicus, Greek akademikoi meant "Academic philosopher"). Also academian (1590s), while academician (1746) mostly was confined to members of the old societies for the promotion of sciences and arts.
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nightgown (n.)

also night-gown, "loose gown for putting on at night," c. 1400, from night + gown.

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Platonism (n.)

"the doctrines, opinions, or philosophy of Plato or of the Academic school," 1560s, from Plato (Greek Platōn; see Platonic) + -ism.

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multidisciplinary (adj.)

also multi-disciplinary, "combining many academic fields or methods," 1949, from multi- "many" + discipline (n.) + -ary.

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academia (n.)
"the academic community, the world of colleges and universities," 1956, Modern Latin, from Academe (q.v.). Related modern coinages include academize (1966); academese (1937).
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peignoir (n.)

"lady's loose robe," 1835, from French peignoir, from Middle French peignouoir "loose, washable garment worn over the shoulders while combing the hair" (16c.), from peigner "to comb the hair," from Latin pectinare, from pecten (genitive pectinis) "a comb," related to pectere "to comb" (see fight (v.)). A gown put on while coming from the bath; misapplied in English to a woman's morning gown.

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psych (n.)

short for psychology in various senses; e.g. as an academic study, in student slang by 1895.

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jupe (n.)
late 13c., "men's loose jacket," from Old French jupe "tunic worn under the armor," also a gown or woman's skirt (12c.), from Arabic jubbah "loose outer garment." As a woman's bodice, from 1810. Jupon is from a French variant form.
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university (n.)

c. 1300, "institution of higher learning," also "body of persons constituting a university," from Anglo-French université, Old French universite "universality; academic community" (13c.), from Medieval Latin universitatem (nominative universitas), "the whole, aggregate," in Late Latin "corporation, society," from universus "whole, entire" (see universe). In the academic sense, a shortening of universitas magistrorum et scholarium "community of masters and scholars;" superseded studium as the word for this. The Latin word also is the source of Spanish universidad, German universität, Russian universitet, etc.

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