Etymology
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storm-trooper (n.)
"member of the Nazi Sturmabteilung," 1933, from storm (v.) + trooper (also see Sturmabteilung). Storm-troops (1917) translates German sturmtruppen, introduced by the German military in World War I.
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hanging (adj.)
late 12c., present-participle adjective from hang (v.). Hanging gardens (of Babylon), one of the wonders of the world, is Latin pensiles horti, Greek kremastoi kepoi. Hanging judge first recorded 1848.
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sand-fly (n.)

"small blood-sucking fly or biting midge," applied variously in different parts of the New World, by 1748, from sand (n.) + fly (n.). Sand-flea is by 1796.

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demi-monde (n.)

also demimonde, "women of equivocal reputation and standing in society," 1855, from French demi-monde "so-so society," literally "half-world," from demi- "half" + monde, from Latin mundus "world" (see mundane).

Popularized by its use as title of a comedy by Alexandre Dumas fils (1824-1895). Dumas' Demi-Monde "is the link between good and bad society ... the world of compromised women, a social limbo, the inmates of which ... are perpetually struggling to emerge into the paradise of honest and respectable ladies" ["Fraser's Magazine," 1855]. Thus not properly used of courtesans, etc.

Compare 18th-century English demi-rep (1749, the second element short for reputation), defined as "a woman that intrigues with every man she likes, under the name and appearance of virtue ... in short, whom every body knows to be what no body calls her" [Fielding].

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cosmopolitan (adj.)

1815, "free from local, provincial, or national prejudices and attachments," from cosmopolite "citizen of the world" (q.v.) on model of metropolitan. From 1833 as "belonging to all parts of the world, limited to no place or society." Meaning "composed of people of all nations, multi-ethnic" is from 1840. The U.S. women's magazine of the same name was first published in 1886.

As a noun, "one who is at home all over the world, a cosmopolite," 1640s. As the name of a vodka-based cocktail popular in 1990s (due to "Sex and the City" TV program) from late 1980s (the drink itself seems to date to the 1970s).

Cosmopolitanism in reference to an ideology that considers all humans as a single community is recorded by 1828. It took on a negative tinge in mid-20c., suggesting an undermining of indigenous and national societies and often tied to the supposed influence of the Jews.

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Bolo (n.)
"traitor," 1917, from Paul Bolo, French adventurer shot for treason April 17, 1918; used in World War I with reference to pacifist propagandists; later somewhat assimilated to Bolshevik (q.v.).
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stockpile (n.)
1872, originally a term in mining, from stock (n.2) + pile (n.). Extended to general use during World War II. The verb is attested from 1921. Related: Stockpiled; stockpiling.
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universe (n.)
Origin and meaning of universe
1580s, "the whole world, cosmos, the totality of existing things," from Old French univers (12c.), from Latin universum "all things, everybody, all people, the whole world," noun use of neuter of adjective universus "all together, all in one, whole, entire, relating to all," literally "turned into one," from unus "one" (from PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique") + versus, past participle of vertere "to turn, turn back, be turned; convert, transform, translate; be changed" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend").
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introversion (n.)
1650s, "action of turning inward" (of thought or contemplation), from Modern Latin introversionem, noun of action from past participle stem of *introvertere (see introvert (v.)). Psychological meaning "tendency to withdraw from the world" is from 1912.
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kultur (n.)
1914, originally, "ideals of civilization as conceived by the Germans," a word from the First World War and in English always at first ironic, from German Kultur, from Latin cultura (see culture (n.)).
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