1520s, "manner or style of expression," also "brief expression with some unity; two or more words expressing what is practically a single notion," from Late Latin phrasis "diction," from Greek phrasis "speech, way of speaking, enunciation, phraseology," from phrazein "to tell, declare, indicate, point out, show, inform," also passively (phrazomai), "indicate to oneself, think or muse upon, consider; think up, contrive; suppose, believe, imagine; perceive, observe."
The Greek verb is of uncertain origin; perhaps it is connected with phrenes "wits, senses, sanity," phrēn "the mind, the heart," literally "midriff, diaphragm" (see phreno-). The musical sense of "a short and somewhat independent passage from a piece" is from 1789. Phrase-book "collection of expressions peculiar to a language" is by 1590s.
Of every great and eminent character, part breaks forth into public view, and part lies hid in domestic privacy. Those qualities which have been exerted in any known and lasting performances may, at any distance of time, be traced and estimated; but silent excellencies are soon forgotten; and those minute peculiarities which discriminate every man from all others, if the are not recorded by those whom personal knowledge enabled to observe them, are irrecoverably lost. [Johnson, "Life of Sir Thomas Browne," 1756]
c. 1300, despit (n.) "contemptuous challenge, defiance; act designed to insult or humiliate someone;" mid-14c., "scorn, contempt," from Old French despit (12c., Modern French dépit), from Latin despectus "a looking down on, scorn, contempt," from past participle of despicere "look down on, scorn," from de "down" (see de-) + spicere/specere "to look at" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe").
The prepositional sense "notwithstanding" (early 15c.) is short for in despite of "in defiance or contempt of" (c. 1300), a loan-translation of Anglo-French en despit de "in contempt of." It almost became despight during the 16c. spelling reform.
mid-14c., consideracioun, "a beholding, looking at," also "a keeping in mind," also "contemplation, reflection," from Old French consideracion (12c., Modern French considération) and directly from Latin considerationem (nominative consideratio) "consideration, contemplation, reflection," noun of action from past-participle stem of considerare "to look at closely, observe" (see consider).
Meaning "a taking into account, act of paying attention to" is from late 14c.; that of "examination, observation" is from early 15c.. Sense of "thoughtful or sympathetic regard" is from c. 1400. Meaning "that which is or should be considered" is from late 15c. Meaning "something given in payment" (as recompense for service) is from c. 1600.
"the third great geological period," 1841, Cainozoic, from Latinized form of Greek kainos "new, fresh, recent, novel" (see recent) + zōon "animal," but here with a sense of "life" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live"). The era that began with the demise of the dinosaurs and the rise of "recent" species and continues to the present; it also is known as the Tertiary. Compare Paleozoic, Mesozoic.
We observe that Lyell, in his geological works, even the most recent, uses the word Cainozoic instead of Coenozoic or Cenozoic. Why the propounder of the terms Eocene, Miocene, etc., should thus spell the word is incomprehensible. If he is right in it, then to be consistent he ought to say Eocain, Miocain, Pliocain, Post-pliocain; for all have the same root καινός. [American Journal of Sciences and Arts, 1873]
"shining, luster, brightness, splendor" 1602 (in "Hamlet" iii.2), noun use of adjective sheene "beautiful, bright," from Old English scene, sciene "beautiful; bright, brilliant," from Proto-Germanic *skauniz "conspicuous" (source also of Old Frisian skene, Middle Dutch scone, Dutch schoon, Old High German skoni, German schön "fair, beautiful;" Gothic skaunjai "beautiful"), from PIE root *keu- "to see, observe, perceive." It is related to show (v.), and OED calls it "virtually a verbal noun to shine."
The meaning "thin film of oil on water" is from 1970. As an adjective now only in poetic or archaic use, but in Middle English used after a woman's name, or as a noun, "fair one, beautiful woman."
c. 1600, "action of criticizing, discrimination or discussion of merit, character or quality; a critical remark or disquisition," from critic + -ism. Meaning "art of judging of and defining the qualities or merits of a thing," especially "estimating literary or artistic worth" is from 1670s. Meaning "inquiry into the history and authenticity of a text" (the sense in higher criticism) is from 1660s.
In the first place, I must take leave to tell them that they wholly mistake the Nature of Criticism who think its business is principally to find fault. Criticism, as it was first instituted by Aristotle, was meant a Standard of judging well. The chiefest part of which is, to observe those Excellencies which should delight a reasonable Reader. [Dryden, preface to "State of Innocence," 1677]
"of or pertaining to a teacher of children," 1781, from Latin paedagogicus, from Greek paidagōgikos "suitable for a teacher," from paidagōgos "teacher of children" (see pedagogue). Earlier (1755) in reference to the points used in printing Hebrew and Greek letters.
Lastly, we observe, that Hebrew being a Sacred language, is chiefly studied by Divines, who often make use of Points in Theological writings; tho' plain Hebrew as well as Greek, are understood and very frequently printed without Points or Accents. But that the use of such Pedagogic Symbols will one time cease, is the hope of all that delight in beholding neat Letter disrobed of all intruders upon its native beauty. [John Smith, "The Printer's Grammar," London, 1755]
1540s, "to regard, notice with especial attention," from French respecter "look back; respect; delay" (16c.), from Latin respectere, frequentative of respicere "look back at, regard, consider," from re- "back" (see re-) + specere "look at" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe").
The meaning "treat with deferential esteem, regard with some degree of reverence" is from 1550s. The sense of "refrain from injuring or interfering with" is from 1620s. The meaning "have reference to, relate to" is from 1560s. Related: Respected; respecting.
To respect the person was "show undue bias toward (or against) based on regard for the outward circumstances of a person;" hence respecter of persons, usually with negative, from Acts x:34, in the 1611 translation.
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "perceive, watch out for."
It forms all or part of: Arcturus; avant-garde; award; aware; beware; Edward; ephor; garderobe; guard; hardware; irreverence; lord; panorama; pylorus; rearward; regard; revere; reverence; reverend; reward; software; steward; vanguard; ward; warden; warder; wardrobe; ware (n.) "manufactured goods, goods for sale;" ware (v.) "to take heed of, beware;" warehouse; wary.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin vereri "to observe with awe, revere, respect, fear;" Greek ouros "a guard, watchman," horan "to see;" Hittite werite- "to see;" Old English weard "a guarding, protection; watchman, sentry, keeper."