Etymology
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Mohammed 

former common English transliteration of Muhammad.

The worst of letting the learned gentry bully us out of our traditional Mahometan & Mahomet ... is this: no sooner have we tried to be good & learnt to say, or at least write, Mohammed than they are fired with zeal to get us a step or two further on the path of truth, which at present seems likely to end in Muhammad with a dot under the h .... [H.W. Fowler, "A Dictionary of Modern English Usage," 1926]
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prolegomenon (n.)

1650s, "preliminary observation," especially "a learned preamble or introductory discourse prefixed to a book," from Greek prolegomenon, noun use of neuter passive present participle of prolegein "to say beforehand," from pro "before" (see pro-) + legein "to speak" (from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')") + suffix -menos (as in alumnus). The same sense is in preface (n.). Related: Prolegomenary; prolegomenous. Plural prologomena.

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welcome (n.)

Old English wilcuma "welcome!" exclamation of kindly greeting, from earlier wilcuma (n.) "welcome guest," literally "one whose coming suits another's will or wish," from willa "pleasure, desire, choice" (see will (n.)) + cuma "guest," related to cuman "to come," from PIE root *gwa- "to go, come." Similar formation in Old High German willicomo, Middle Dutch wellecome.

Meaning "entertainment or public reception as a greeting" is recorded from 1530. The adjective is from Old English wilcuma. You're welcome as a formulaic response to thank you is attested from 1907. Welcome mat is from 1908; welcome wagon is attested from 1940.

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fungus (n.)

1520s, "a mushroom," from Latin fungus "a mushroom, fungus;" used in English at first as a learned alternative to mushroom (funge was used in this sense late 14c.). The Latin word is believed to be cognate with (or derived from) Greek sphongos, the Attic form of spongos "sponge" (see sponge (n.)). "Probably a loanword from a non-IE language, borrowed independently into Greek, Latin and Armenian in a form *sphong- ...." [de Vaan]

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pedantry (n.)

"manners, acts, or character of a pedant; the overrating of mere knowledge, especially in matters of learning which are of minor importance; ostentatious or inappropriate display of learning," 1610s, from Italian pedanteria, from pedante, or from French pédanterie, from pédant (see pedant).

PEDANTRY crams our heads with learned lumber, and takes out our brains to make room for it. [The Rev. C.C. Colton, "Lacon: or Many Things in Few Words," London, 1823]
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sapience (n.)

late 14c., "wisdom, understanding, sageness; the reasonable soul, that which distinguishes humans from beasts," from Old French sapience and directly from Latin sapientia "good taste, good sense, discernment; intelligence, wisdom," from sapiens "sensible; shrewd, knowing, discrete;" also "well-acquainted with the true value of things," like Greek sophos (see sapient). Formerly also sometimes especially "intelligent taste" (1660s). OED calls it "A learned synonym. Now rare in serious use."

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optic (adj.)

late 14c., optik, "of or pertaining to the eye as the organ of vision," from Old French optique, obtique (c. 1300) and directly from Medieval Latin opticus "of sight or seeing," from Greek optikos "of or having to do with sight," from optos "seen, visible," related to ōps "eye," from PIE root *okw- "to see." Meaning "relating to or pertaining to vision or sight" is from 1590s. Optics "eyes" is from 1640s; "formerly the learned and elegant term; afterwards pedantic, and now usually humorous" [OED].

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Michael 

masc. proper name, also the name of an archangel, from Late Latin Michael (source of French Michel, Spanish Miguel), from Greek Mikhael, from Hebrew Mikha-el, literally "Who is like God?" The modern form of the name was a learned form in Middle English, where the common form was Michel (also Mihhal, Mighel, etc.), from Old French. The surname Mitchell might be from the old pronunciation of Michael or in some cases it might be from Old English mycel "big."

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cenacle (n.)

"dining room," usually with reference to the room in which the Last Supper was held, c. 1400, from Old French cenacle, learned variant of cenaille (14c., Modern French cénacle), from Latin cenaculum "dining room," from cena "mid-day meal, afternoon meal," literally "portion of food" (from PIE *kert-sna-, from root *sker- (1) "to cut"). Latin cenaculum was used in the Vulgate for the "upper room" where the Last Supper was eaten. Related: Cenatical; cenation.

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apprehension (n.)

late 14c., "perception, comprehension," from Old French apreension "comprehension, something learned" or directly from Latin apprehensionem (nominative apprehensio) "a seizing upon, laying hold of; understanding," noun of action from past-participle stem of apprehendere "take hold of, grasp" physically or mentally, from ad "to" (see ad-) + prehendere "to seize." This is a compound of prae- "before" (see pre-) + -hendere, from PIE root *ghend- "to seize, take."

The sense of "seizure on behalf of authority" is 1570s; that of "anticipation" (usually with dread), "fear of the future" is from c. 1600.

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